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Table 3 Adjusted HRs for development of AMI in subjects with DME compared with age/gender matched diabetes controls*, 1 July 2002 to 31 December 2005

From: Hospitalized cardiovascular events in patients with diabetic macular edema

Reference exposure HR 95% CI p-value
DME versus diabetes controls 2.50 1.83 – 3.41 < 0.001
Covariates†    
Angina 1.00 0.59 - 1.71 1.00
Cardiac arrhythmia 1.19 0.75 - 1.87 0.47
Charlson comorbidity index 0.98 0.88 - 1.08 0.63
Congestive heart failure 1.57 0.98 - 2.52 0.06
Heart disease 2.45 1.72 - 3.48 < 0.001
History of AMI 2.62 1.35 - 5.07 0.004
History of CVA 1.37 0.71 - 2.66 0.35
Hyperlipidemia 0.75 0.55 - 1.01 0.06
Hypertension 0.92 0.67 - 1.27 0.62
Other cerebrovascular disease 1.47 0.68 - 3.19 0.33
Prior anti-platelet or anticoagulant 1.93 1.28 - 2.89 0.002
  1. *Diabetes controls - diabetes subjects without ophthalmic manifestations, retinal disorders, or vitreous hemorrhage.
  2. † All covariates were included in the regression model; bolded text indicates statistical signficance.
  3. DME = diabetic macular edema; AMI = acute myocardial infarction; CVA = cerebrovascular accident; CI = confidence interval; HR = hazard ratios.