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Table 5 Adjusted HRs for development of CVAs in subjects with DME compared with age/gender matched diabetes controls*, 1 July 2002 to 31 December 2005

From: Hospitalized cardiovascular events in patients with diabetic macular edema

Reference exposure HR 95% CI p-value
DME versus diabetes controls 1.98 1.39 – 2.83 < 0.001
Covariates†    
Angina 0.71 0.32 - 1.58 0.40
Cardiac arrhythmia 1.88 1.12 - 3.16 0.02
Charlson comorbidity index 1.13 1.02 - 1.24 0.02
Congestive heart failure 0.94 0.51 - 1.72 0.84
Heart disease 1.52 0.99 - 2.32 0.06
History of AMI 0.91 0.31 - 2.69 0.87
History of CVA 2.40 1.26 - 4.59 0.01
Hyperlipidemia 0.63 0.44 - 0.91 0.01
Hypertension 1.18 0.81 - 1.70 0.39
Other cerebrovascular disease 2.20 1.03 - 4.71 0.04
Prior anti-platelet or anticoagulant 1.07 0.62 - 1.83 0.81
  1. *Diabetes controls - diabetes subjects without ophthalmic manifestations, retinal disorders, or vitreous hemorrhage.
  2. † All covariates were included in the regression model; bolded text indicates statistical signficance.
  3. DME = diabetic macular edema; AMI = acute myocardial infarction; CVA = cerebrovascular accident; CI = confidence interval; HR = hazard ratios.