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Table 3 Factors independently associated with having an eye exam in the last year from random effect multiple logistic regression model

From: Eye care utilization by older adults in low, middle, and high income countries

n = 31,530 OR 95% CI
Age 1.01 1.00, 1.01
Female gender 1.17 1.10, 1.25
Highest education level   
   No formal schooling 1.00  
   Less than primary school 1.27 1.12, 1.43
   Completed primary school 1.29 1.14, 1.45
   Completed secondary school 1.50 1.31, 1.71
   Completed high school 1.99 1.70, 2.33
   Completed college/university 2.00 1.68, 2.38
   Completed post-graduate degree 2.84 2.11, 3.82
Wealth index of participant   
   Lowest category 1.00  
   Middle category 1.28 1.19, 1.38
   Upper category 1.62 1.46, 1.80
Setting   
   Urban 1.00  
   Rural 0.75 0.70. 0.81
Health status   
   Very good 1.00  
   Good 1.17 1.01, 1.35
   Fair 1.38 1.20, 1.59
   Bad or very bad 1.58 1.36, 1.84
Diabetes 1.67 1.53, 1.83
Wears glasses or contact lenses 2.26 2.10, 2.45