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Table 5 Factors associated with visual impairment and blindness

From: Factors associated with childhood ocular morbidity and blindness in three ecological regions of Nepal: Nepal pediatric ocular disease study

Characteristics Visual impairment Blindness
Yes No Yes No
Demographic factors
Region     
 Terai 5(50.0%) 5203(50.7%) 4(57.1%) 5204(50.7%)
 Hill 5(50.0%) 3131(30.5%) 2(28.6%) 3134(30.5%)
 Mountain 0(0%) 1926(18.8%) 1(14.3%) 1925(18.8%)
Age group     
 <5 years 1 (10%) 3884(37.9%) 1(14.3%) 3884(37.8%)
 > = 5-10 years 9(90.0%) 6376(62.1) 6(85.7%) 6379(62.2%)
Sex     
 Female 2(20.0%) 5086(49.6%) 4(57.1%) 5084(49.5%)
 Male 8(80.0%) 5174(50.4%) 3(42.9%) 5179(50.5%)
Religion     
 Hindu 6(60.0%) 5231(51.0%) 2(28.6%) 5235(51.0%)
 Buddhist 1(10%) 2706(26.4%) 1(14.3%) 2706(26.4%)
 Christian 1(10.0%) 596(5.8%) 1(14.3%) 596(5.8%)
 0thers 2(20.0%) 1727(16.8%) 3(42.9%) 1726(16.8%)
History of marriage (Consanguinity)     
 Yes 0 1766(17.2%) 2(28.6%) 1764(17.2%)
 No 10(100%) 8494(82.8%) 5(71.4%) 8499(99.9%)
Maternal factors
Mothers education     
 Literate 4(40%) 3846(37.5%) 2(28.6%) 3848(37.5%)
 Illiterate 6(60%) 6414(62.5%) 5(71.4%) 6415(62.5%)
Mother’s smoking habit     
 Yes 6(60.0%) 6405(62.4%) 5(71.4%) 6406(62.4%)
 No 4(40.0%) 3855(37.6%) 2(28.6%) 3857(37.6%)
Mother’s alcohol habit     
 Yes 8(80%) 8237(80.3%) 5(71.4%) 8240(80.3%)
 No 2(20%) 2023(19.7%) 2(28.6%) 2023(19.7%)
ANC period *    
 Uneventful 6(60.0%) 9107(88.8%) 7(100%) 9106(88.7%)
 Eventful 4(40.0%) 1153(11.2%) 0(0) 1157(11.3%)
Biological factors
Birth history     
 Full term 10(100%) 10248(99.9%) 7(100%) 10251(99.9%)
 Preterm 0(0) 12(.1%) 0(0%) 12(.1%)
Place of birth     
 Home 9(90%) 9288(90.5%) 7(100%) 9290(90.5%)
 HF 1(10%) 972(9.5%) 0(0%) 973(9.5)
Postnatal period     
 Uneventful 10(100%) 10241(99.8%) 7(100%) 10244(99.8%)
 Eventful 0(0%) 19(0.2%) 0(0%) 19(0.2%)
Immunization     
 Yes 10(100%) 10147(98.9%) 7(0.1%) 10150(98.9%)
 No 0(0%) 113(1.1%) 0(0%) 113(1.1%)
Systemic illness ***    
 Yes 1(4.8%) 20(95.2%) 0(0%) 21(100%)
 No 9(0.1%) 10240(99.9%) 7(0.1%) 10242(99.9%)
Previous ocular surgery/treatment ***   ***  
 Yes 1(2.2%) 45(97.8%) 4(8.7%) 42(91.3%)
 No 9(0.1%) 10215(99.9%) 3(0.1%) 10221(99.9%)
  1. Note: ***p < 0.001, *p < 0.05.