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Table 5 Factors associated with visual impairment and blindness

From: Factors associated with childhood ocular morbidity and blindness in three ecological regions of Nepal: Nepal pediatric ocular disease study

Characteristics

Visual impairment

Blindness

Yes

No

Yes

No

Demographic factors

Region

    

 Terai

5(50.0%)

5203(50.7%)

4(57.1%)

5204(50.7%)

 Hill

5(50.0%)

3131(30.5%)

2(28.6%)

3134(30.5%)

 Mountain

0(0%)

1926(18.8%)

1(14.3%)

1925(18.8%)

Age group

    

 <5 years

1 (10%)

3884(37.9%)

1(14.3%)

3884(37.8%)

 > = 5-10 years

9(90.0%)

6376(62.1)

6(85.7%)

6379(62.2%)

Sex

    

 Female

2(20.0%)

5086(49.6%)

4(57.1%)

5084(49.5%)

 Male

8(80.0%)

5174(50.4%)

3(42.9%)

5179(50.5%)

Religion

    

 Hindu

6(60.0%)

5231(51.0%)

2(28.6%)

5235(51.0%)

 Buddhist

1(10%)

2706(26.4%)

1(14.3%)

2706(26.4%)

 Christian

1(10.0%)

596(5.8%)

1(14.3%)

596(5.8%)

 0thers

2(20.0%)

1727(16.8%)

3(42.9%)

1726(16.8%)

History of marriage (Consanguinity)

    

 Yes

0

1766(17.2%)

2(28.6%)

1764(17.2%)

 No

10(100%)

8494(82.8%)

5(71.4%)

8499(99.9%)

Maternal factors

Mothers education

    

 Literate

4(40%)

3846(37.5%)

2(28.6%)

3848(37.5%)

 Illiterate

6(60%)

6414(62.5%)

5(71.4%)

6415(62.5%)

Mother’s smoking habit

    

 Yes

6(60.0%)

6405(62.4%)

5(71.4%)

6406(62.4%)

 No

4(40.0%)

3855(37.6%)

2(28.6%)

3857(37.6%)

Mother’s alcohol habit

    

 Yes

8(80%)

8237(80.3%)

5(71.4%)

8240(80.3%)

 No

2(20%)

2023(19.7%)

2(28.6%)

2023(19.7%)

ANC period

*

   

 Uneventful

6(60.0%)

9107(88.8%)

7(100%)

9106(88.7%)

 Eventful

4(40.0%)

1153(11.2%)

0(0)

1157(11.3%)

Biological factors

Birth history

    

 Full term

10(100%)

10248(99.9%)

7(100%)

10251(99.9%)

 Preterm

0(0)

12(.1%)

0(0%)

12(.1%)

Place of birth

    

 Home

9(90%)

9288(90.5%)

7(100%)

9290(90.5%)

 HF

1(10%)

972(9.5%)

0(0%)

973(9.5)

Postnatal period

    

 Uneventful

10(100%)

10241(99.8%)

7(100%)

10244(99.8%)

 Eventful

0(0%)

19(0.2%)

0(0%)

19(0.2%)

Immunization

    

 Yes

10(100%)

10147(98.9%)

7(0.1%)

10150(98.9%)

 No

0(0%)

113(1.1%)

0(0%)

113(1.1%)

Systemic illness

***

   

 Yes

1(4.8%)

20(95.2%)

0(0%)

21(100%)

 No

9(0.1%)

10240(99.9%)

7(0.1%)

10242(99.9%)

Previous ocular surgery/treatment

***

 

***

 

 Yes

1(2.2%)

45(97.8%)

4(8.7%)

42(91.3%)

 No

9(0.1%)

10215(99.9%)

3(0.1%)

10221(99.9%)

  1. Note: ***p < 0.001, *p < 0.05.