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Table 1 Characteristics of the study sample aged 40 years and older in three surveys

From: Time trend of prevalence of self-reported cataract and its association with prolonged sitting in Taiwan from 2001 and 2013

Variable Year 2001 Year 2009 Year 2013 P value*
n (%) N (%) N (%)
Total 8334 11207 10940  
Mean sitting time (SD) 5.17 ± 0.09 5.38 ± 0.06 5.69 ± 0.05 <0.001
Sitting time (grouped), hours        <0.001
  <3 1892 (22.70) 2100 (18.74) 1624 (14.84)  
  3–4 2421 (29.05) 3198 (28.54) 2993 (27.36)  
  5–6 1803 (21.63) 2820 (25.17) 2852 (26.07)  
  ≥7 2218 (26.61) 3088 (24.55) 3471 (31.73)  
Mean age (SD) 56.11 ± 0.26 56.31 ± 0.16 57.04 ± 0.17 <0.001
Age (grouped), years        0.055
  40–54 4586 (55.03) 6104 (54.46) 5507 (50.34)  
  55–64 1691 (20.29) 2474 (22.08) 2896 (26.47)  
  ≥ 65 2057 (24.68) 2629 (23.46) 2538 (23.19)  
Sex        0.697
  Male 4086 (49.39) 5535 (49.39) 5336 (48.77)  
  Female 4248 (50.97) 5671 (50.61) 5605 (50.23)  
Education level†        0.006
  None 1458 (17.49) 1018 (9.08) 839 (7.67)  
  Junior high school and below 4127 (49.52) 4883 (43.57) 4265 (38.98)  
  Senior high school 1572 (18.86) 2995 (26.72) 3051 (27.89)  
  College or Bachelor’s degree 1090 (13.08) 1993 (17.78) 2267 (20.73)  
  Master’s degree and above 87 (1.04) 319 (2.84) 518 (4.73)  
Marital status        <0.001
  Never married 262 (3.14) 596 (5.31) 787 (7.19)  
  Married 6737 (80.84) 8566 (76.43) 8129 (74.30)  
  Other 1335 (16.02) 2045 (18.25) 2025 (18.51)  
Employed status 4084 (49.00) 6318 (56.38) 6373 (58.25) <0.001
Monthly household income ($NT)        <0.001
  <30,000 2101 (25.21) 2849 (25.42) 2266 (20.71)  
  ≥ 30,000 to <70,000 3444 (41.32) 3775 (33.68) 3751 (34.28)  
  ≥70,000 2687 (32.24) 2650 (23.65) 3170 (28.98)  
  Not stated 102 (1.22) 1932 (17.24) 1753 (16.03)  
Degrees of urbanization§        <0.001
  High urbanization 1769 (21.23) 2530 (22.58) 2948 (26.95)  
  Moderate urbanization 2249 (26.99) 2558 (22.82) 5369 (49.07)  
  Developing towns 1827 (21.92) 3598 (32.11) 1353 (12.37)  
  General towns 1226 (14.71) 1802 (16.08) 884 (8.08)  
  Other towns 1263 (15.15) 719 (6.41) 387 (3.53)  
Health status        
  Cataract 882 (10.70) 1471 (13.13) 1296 (11.84) 0.122
  Hypertension 1825 (21.90) 2934 (26.18) 3141 (28.71) <0.001
  Diabetes 759 (9.11) 1173 (10.47) 1302 (11.90) <0.001
  Myopia 1641 (19.69) 3384 (30.19) 3839 (35.09) <0.001
Smoking status        <0.001
  Never smokers 5872 (70.46) 7077 (63.15) 7157 (65.42)  
  Former smokers 477 (5.72) 1695 (15.13) 1569 (14.34)  
  Current smokers 1985 (23.82) 2434 (21.72) 2214 (20.24)  
  1. *P value based on test of trend.
  2. †Education level: College and above includes online universities and online professional colleges.
  3. ‡Marital status: other includes living together, separated, divorced, and widowed.
  4. §Degrees of urbanization: other towns include aged towns, agricultural towns, and villages.