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Table 2 Factors associated with cataract in those aged 40 years and older in three surveys

From: Time trend of prevalence of self-reported cataract and its association with prolonged sitting in Taiwan from 2001 and 2013

Variable Year 2001 P value* Year 2009 P value* Year 2013 P value*
N (%) N (%) N (%)
Total 892 (10.70)   1471 (13.13)   1296 (11.84)  
Mean sitting time (SD) 5.44 ± 0.14 0.040 5.39 ± 0.12 0.725 5.66 ± 0.12 0.665
Sitting time (grouped), hours    0.088    0.487    0.037
  <3 195 (10.31)   303 (14.44)   218 (13.40)  
  3–4 236 (9.75)   414 (12.94)   313 (10.45)  
  5–6 187 (10.37)   366 (12.97)   369 (12.94)  
  ≥7 274 (12.35)   388 (12.57)   396 (11.42)  
Mean age (SD) 70.12 ± 0.33 <0.001 71.88 ± 0.32 <0.001 70.87 ± 0.36 <0.001
Age (grouped), years    <0.001    <0.001    <0.001
  40–54 61 (1.33)   80 (1.31)   71 (1.30)  
  55–64 179 (10.59)   276 (11.15)   297 (10.27)  
  ≥ 65 652 (31.70)   1115 (42.42)   927 (36.53)  
Sex    <0.001    <0.001    <0.001
  Male 364 (8.91)   610 (11.02)   531 (9.95)  
  Female 528 (12.43)   861 (15.18)   765 (13.64)  
Education level†    <0.001    <0.001    <0.001
  None 349 (23.94)   398 (39.08)   301 (35.92)  
  Junior high school and below 400 (9.69)   773 (15.83)   614 (14.40)  
  Senior high school 81 (5.15)   152 (5.09)   182 (5.96)  
  College or Bachelor’s degree 55 (5.05)   128 (6.26)   157 (6.94)  
  Master’s degree and above 7 (8.05)   23 (7.23)   41 (7.90)  
Marital status‡    <0.001    <0.001    <0.001
  Never married 11 (4.20)   28 (4.63)   32 (4.03)  
  Married 592 (8.79)   921 (10.75)   861 (10.59)  
  Other 289 (21.65)   523 (25.55)   403 (19.92)  
Employment status    <0.001    <0.001    <0.001
  Employed 125 (3.06)   230 (3.64)   283 (4.44)  
  Not employed 767 (18.05)   1241 (25.38)   1013 (22.18)  
Monthly household income ($NT)    <0.001    <0.001    <0.001
  <30,000 359 (17.09)   562 (19.72)   395 (17.42)  
  ≥ 30,000 to <70,000 304 (8.83)   317 (8.39)   360 (9.60)  
  ≥70,000 219 (8.15)   163 (6.16)   247 (7.78)  
  Not stated 10 (9.80)   429 (22.21)   294 (16.79)  
Degrees of urbanization§    0.324    <0.001    0.002
  High urbanization 188 (10.63)   388 (15.34)   396 (13.42)  
  Moderate urbanization 235 (10.45)   346 (13.52)   560 (10.43)  
  Developing towns 170 (9.30)   363 (10.10)   155 (11.43)  
  General towns 127 (10.36)   268 (14.88)   127 (14.35)  
  Other towns 172 (13.62)   105 (14.64)   59 (15.20)  
Health status          
Hypertension    <0.001    <0.001    <0.001
  Yes 357 (19.56)   766 (26.12)   724 (23.4)  
  No 535 (8.22)   705 (8.52)   572 (7.33)  
Diabetes    <0.001    <0.001    <0.001
  Yes 187 (24.64)   345 (29.38)   328 (25.22)  
  No 705 (9.31)   1126 (11.22)   967 (10.04)  
Myopia    <0.001    <0.001    <0.001
  Yes 84 (5.12)   210 (6.20)   251 (6.54)  
  No 808 (12.07)   1261 (16.12)   1045 (14.71)  
Smoking status    <0.001    <0.001    <0.001
  Never smokers 673 (11.46)   1019 (14.40)   979 (13.67)  
  Former smokers 83 (17.40)   286 (16.88)   211 (13.43)  
  Current smokers 136 (6.85)   166 (6.81)   106 (4.80)  
  1. *P value based on chi-square test for categorical variables and t-test for continuous variables (cataract versus no cataract).
  2. †Education level: College and above includes online universities and online professional colleges.
  3. ‡Marital status: other includes living together, separated, divorced, and widowed.
  4. §Degrees of urbanization: other towns include aged towns, agricultural towns, and villages.