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Table 4 Factors associated with risk of developing cataracts after adjusting for significant socio-demographic factors* - multivariate analysis for each variable cluster (N = 11,591)

From: Cataract subtype risk factors identified from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination survey 2008–2010

  Multivariate OR 95% CI p
1. Socio-demographic factors
Age (years)    
  40–49 1.0 (ref)   
  50–59 3.7 3.2–4.3 <0.01
  60–69 14.9 12.7–17.4 <0.01
  70–80 57.3 46.0–71.3 <0.01
  80+ 192.7 103.6–358.4 <0.01
Sex    
  Men 1.0 (ref)   
  Women 0.9 0.8–1.0 0.02
Monthly household income    
  Lowest quintile 1.0 (ref)   
  2nd to 4th quintile 0.9 0.7–1.0 0.04
  Highest quintile 0.7 0.6–0.9 <0.01
Education    
  Elementary school 1.0 (ref)   
  Middle school 0.8 0.7–0.9 <0.01
  High school 0.7 0.6–0.8 <0.01
  University or higher 0.6 0.5–0.7 <0.01
Residential area    
  Urban 1.0 (ref)   
  Rural 1.0 0.9–1.2 0.57
Occupation    
Administrator, management, and professional 1.0 (ref)   
Business and financial operations 1.0 0.8–1.4 0.78
Sales and related 1.0 0.8–1.3 0.79
Farming, fishing, and forestry 1.1 0.8–1.4 0.49
Installation, maintenance, and repair 1.0 0.7–1.3 0.83
Laborer 1.1 0.8–1.4 0.54
Unemployed 1.2 1.0–1.5 0.09
2. Health examination variable
Obesity    
  Underweight 1.0 (ref)   
  Normal 1.0 0.8–1.1 0.44
  Obesity 1.4 0.9–1.9 0.10
Hypercholesterolemia    
  No 1.0 (ref)   
  Yes 1.2 1.0–1.4 0.03
Hypo-HDL-cholesterolemia
  No 1.0 (ref)   
  Yes 1.0 0.8–1.1 0.64
Hypertriglycemia    
  No 1.0 (ref)   
  Yes 0.9 0.7–1.0 0.10
Anemia    
  No 1.0 (ref)   
  Yes 1.2 1.0–1.5 0.05
Metabolic syndrome    
  No 1.0 (ref)   
  Yes 1.2 1.1–1.4 <0.01
3. Comorbidities
Hypertension    
  No 1.0 (ref)   
  Yes 1.2 1.0–1.3 <0.01
Diabetic mellitus    
  No 1.0 (ref)   
  Yes 1.7 1.4–2.0 <0.01
Osteoarthritis    
  No 1.0 (ref)   
  Yes 1.1 0.9–1.2 0.31
Rheumatoid arthritis    
  No 1.0 (ref)   
  Yes 1.1 0.8–1.4 0.55
Atopic dermatitis    
  No 1.0 (ref)   
  Yes 0.9 0.6–1.3 0.45
Asthma    
  No 1.0 (ref)   
  Yes 1.0 0.8–1.3 0.92
4. Health behavioral risk factors
Lifetime smoker    
  No 1.0 (ref)   
  Yes 1.0 0.9–1.2 0.59
Binge alcohol user    
  No 1.0 (ref)   
  Yes 0.9 0.8–1.0 0.14
Physical activity of moderate intensity
  Never 1.0 (ref)   
  >5 times per week 1.0 0.8–1.3 0.93
Coffee consumption    
  Never 1.0 (ref)   
  1–6 cups per week 0.9 0.8–1.1 0.50
  ≥7 cups per week 0.9 0.7–1.0 0.09
Stress    
  Least stress 1.0 (ref)   
  Moderate stress 0.9 0.8–1.0 0.07
  Extreme stress 1.1 0.8–1.4 0.59
Sun exposure    
  <5 hr/day 1.0 (ref)   
  ≥5 hr/day 1.1 1.0–1.2 0.09