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Table 3 Factors associated with diabetic retinopathy (DR) using multiple logistic regression

From: Evaluating the effectiveness of opportunistic eye screening model for people with Diabetes attending Diabetes clinic at Mnazi Mmoja hospital, Zanzibar

Variables Total n = 352 (%) Adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) P value
Age (years)  
< 50 years 128 (36) 1 0.020
>50 years 224 (64) 2.19 (1.14 – 4.25)
Gender  
Male 174 (49) 1 0.028
Female 178 (51) 1.92 (1.07 – 3.44)
Body mass index  
Normal range 200 (57) 1 0.17
Overweight 93 (26) 1.53 (0.84 – 2.79)
Obese 59 (17) 1.61 (0.78 – 3.32) 0.19
Diabetes duration  
<5 years 176 (50) 1 0.17
6 -10 years 109 (31) 1.53 (0.83 – 2.82)
11 – 15 years 38 (11) 4.06 (1.76 – 9.36) 0.001
16 and above 29 (8) 2.67 (1.08 – 6.58) 0.03
Present history of hypertension  
No 156 (44) 1 0.33
Yes 196 (56) 1.35 (0.74 – 2.44)
Fasting blood sugar  
Normal range 54 (15) 1 0.88
High 298 (85) 1.06 (0.52 – 2.14)
Visual acuity*  
Normal range 250 (70) 1 <0.001
Visually impaired 102 (30) 2.71 (1.56 – 4.7)
  1. *4 persons had dense cataract and there was no view, hence they are not included for this calculation.