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Table 1 Summary of Reported Cases of Epithelial Downgrowth (ED) after Penetrating Keratoplasty (PK)

From: Primary graft failure associated with epithelial downgrowth: a case report

Author Previous ocular surgery PK Indication Time from PK to ED diagnosis Clinical features of ED Diagnosis of ED Final Anatomic/ Visual Status
Chiou et al [1] 3 PKs, 2 Trabs, 1 CPC Graft Failure 13 months Concentric peripheral retrocorneal membrane Confocal microscopy BSCVA 20/400
Feder & Krachmer [2] ICCE ABK 6 months Iritis, glaucoma, posterior corneal line Paracentesis, laser Graft decompensation, glaucoma
  ICCE PBK 7 months Iritis, glaucoma Paracentesis, laser End-stage glaucoma
  ICCE Fuchs' dystrophy 5 months Posterior corneal line Paracentesis, laser Evisceration
  ECCE KCN 13 years Iritis Paracentesis, laser Phthisis bulbi
Mazow [7] None Endothelial dystrophy 5 months Glaucoma Histopathologic Enucleation
Karabatsas [8] 2 PKs PBK 8 months Posterior corneal line, glaucoma Clinical features Not available
Sugar [3] PK, ICCE Graft failure 7 months Retrocorneal membrane, pre-iris membrane Histopathologic Recurrent retrocorneal membrane; CF VA*
  ICCE ABK;Fuchs' dystrophy 2 weeks Descemet's deposits Histopathologic BSCVA 20/200
  LK, ICCE Opacification of lamellar graft 16 months Pre-iris membrane Histopathologic Scarred regraft; VA 10/400
  PK, ICCE Graft failure 6 months Retrocorneal membrane Clinical features Vascularized, edeamatous regraft, VA HM
Leibowitz [9] 2 PKs Graft failure 1 month Retrocorneal membrane; anterior chamber epithelial cyst Histopathologic Vascularized, opacified regraft
Groh & Naumann [10] None KCN 13 months Anterior chamber epithelial cyst Clinical features VA 14/20
  None Lattice corneal dystrophy 47 months Anterior chamber epithelial cyst Clinical features VA 10/20
Wearne [11] None Scarring 2° to HSV keratitis 10 years Anterior chamber epithelial cyst Clinical features VA 6/20
Yamaguchi et al. [12] PK, ICCE Graft failure 12 months Retrocorneal membrane Clinical features and histopathologic Opacified regraft
Sidrys [13] ICCE PBK 3 weeks§ Retrocorneal membrane Clinical features and histopathologic VA 6/60Θ
Weiner [14]# Unknown Various Unknown Retrocorneal membrane, glaucoma Clinical features and histopathologic Unknown
Kurz & D'Amico [16] None Corneal scar 10 months None Histopathologic Unknown
  None Corneal scar 8 weeks None Histopathologic Enucleation**
Bennett & D'Amico [15] None KCN 3 years Iris epithelial inclusion cyst Clinical features and histopathologic S/p sector iridectomy without recurrence
Claoue et al [17] None KCN 21 months Iris epithelial inclusion cyst Clinical features and histopathologic S/p sector iridectomy without recurrence
Daneshvar et al. [6] CE ABK 1 year Glaucoma, retrocorneal membrane Laser, ultrasound biomicroscopy No recurrence 16 months after repeat PK
  1. BSCVA = best spectacle corrected visual acuity; ABK = aphakic bullous keratopathy; CF = counting fingers; CPC = cyclophotocoagulation; ECCE = extracapsular cataract extraction; HM = hand motions; HSV = herpes simplex virus; ICCE = intracapsular cataract extraction; KCN = keratoconus; LK = lamellar keratectomy; PBK = pseudophakic bullous keratopathy; Trab = trabeculectomy; * limited by ARMD; h/o CME and RD s/p SB; same patient reported again in; 10§ epithelial downgrowth through a cataract wound fistula; Θ limited by CME; same patient reported again in; 12 # 13 patients reported; ** performed after traumatic wound dehiscence and total retinal detachment