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Table 2 Association between age, gender, social status, NEI-VFQ sub-scale scores and visual impairment

From: Is the NEI-VFQ-25 a useful tool in identifying visual impairment in an elderly population?

Exposure N (%) Number with VA<6/12 (%) OR VA<6/12 (95% CI) Number with VA<6/18 (%) OR VA<6/18 (95% CI)
Age (years)      
75 to <80 310 (17) 56 (18) 1.00 17 (5) 1.00
80 to 85 881 (49) 226 (26) 1.31 (0.93, 1.85) 83 (9) 1.68 (0.97, 2.93)
>85 594 (33) 303 (51) 4.44 (3.14, 6.29) 143 (24) 5.22 (3.05, 8.95)
Total 1785 585 (33)   243 (14)  
P-value †    <0.001   <0.001
Gender      
Male 650 (36) 174 (27) 1.00 61 (8) 1.00
Female 1135 (64) 411 (36) 1.31 (1.05, 1.65) 182 (16) 1.57 (1.13, 2.16)
Total 1785 585 (33)   243 (14)  
P-value    0.019   0.006
Carstairs deprivation index      
High (privileged) 388 (22) 149 (38) 1.00 61 (16) 1.00
Higher middle 386 (22) 140 (36) 0.92 (0.65, 1.31) 59 (15) 1.05 (0.67, 1.64)
Lower middle 389 (22) 124 (32) 0.68 (0.47, 1.00) 57 (15) 0.92 (0.56, 1.50)
Low (less privileged) 403 (23) 115 (29) 0.69 (0.46, 1.04) 40 (10) 0.72 (0.41, 1.26)
Missing 219 (12) 57 (26) 0.56 (0.37, 0.85) 26 (12) 0.79 (0.46, 1.36)
Total 1785 585 (33)   243 (14)  
P-value †    0.002   0.167
General health      
No problems 142 (8) 41 (29) 1.00 16 (11) 1.00
Few 493 (28) 129 (26) 0.78 (0.50, 1.22) 44 (9) 0.68 (0.36, 1.29)
Moderate health 614 (34) 198 (32) 1.03 (0.67, 1.59) 91 (15) 1.16 (0.64, 2.11)
Poor health 534 (30) 216 (40) 1.43 (0.93, 2.22) 91 (17) 1.25 (0.68, 2.28)
Total 1783 584 (33)   242 (14)  
P-value †    <0.001   0.018
General vision      
No problems 1206 (68) 244 (20) 1.00 50 (4) 1.00
Problems 577 (32) 339 (59) 5.75 (4.53, 7.31) 192 (33) 11.0 (7.72, 15.5)
Total 1783 583 (33)   242 (14)  
P-value    <0.001   <0.001
Ocular pain      
No problems 982 (55) 316 (32) 1.00 120 (12) 1.00
Problems 801 (45) 267 (33) 1.04 (0.83, 1.29) 122 (15) 1.22 (0.91, 1.64)
Total 1783 583 (33)   242 (14)  
P-value    0.751   0.176
Near activities      
No problems 838 (47) 156 (19) 1.00 27 (3) 1.00
Problems 940 (53) 422 (45) 3.48 (2.75, 4.40) 213 (23) 8.35 (5.44, 12.8)
Total 1778 540 (31)   240 (14)  
P-value    <0.001   <0.001
Distance activities      
No problems 839 (50) 185 (22) 1.00 40 (5) 1.00
Problems 856 (51) 339 (40) 2.11 (1.67, 2.66) 178 (21) 4.91 (3.37, 7.14)
Total 1695 ‡ 524 (31)   218 (13)  
P-value    <0.001   <0.001
Social function      
No problems 1420 (80) 357 (28) 1.00 95 (7) 1.00
Problems 355 (20) 219 (62) 4.71 (3.60, 6.16) 145 (41) 9.38 (6.81, 12.9)
Total 1775 576 (32)   240 (14)  
P-value    <0.001   <0.001
Mental health      
No problems 954 (54) 218 (23) 1.00 56 (6) 1.00
Problems 829 (46) 365 (44) 2.54 (2.03, 3.17) 186 (22) 4.46 (3.20, 6.23)
Total 1783 583 (33)   242 (14)  
P-value    <0.001   <0.001
Role difficulties      
No problems 1058 (60) 246 (23) 1.00 52 (5) 1.00
Problems 721 (41) 33 (46) 2.79 (2.23, 3.49) 188 (26) 6.77 (4.81, 9.55)
Total 1779 579 (33)   240 (13)  
P-value    <0.001   <0.001
Dependency      
No problems 1381 (78) 335 (24) 1.00 91 (7) 1.00
Problems 400 (22) 246 (64) 4.80 (3.70, 6.24) 150 (38) 7.45 (5.44, 10.2)
Total 1781 581 (33)   241 (14)  
P-value    <0.001   <0.001
Driving *      
No problems 299 (55) 29 (10) 1.00 3 (1) 1.00
Problems 246 (45) 79 (32) 4.63 (2.81, 7.62) 38 (15) 24.5 (6.57, 91.1)
Total 545 108 (20)   41 (8)  
P-value    <0.001   <0.001
Colour vision      
No problems 1578 (90) 445 (28) 1.00 146 (9) 1.00
Problems 178 (10) 121 (68) 5.39 (3.74, 7.78) 89 (38) 9.86 (6.77, 14.3)
Total 1756 566 (32)   235 (13)  
P-value    <0.001   <0.001
Peripheral vision      
No problems 1300 (75) 326 (25) 1.00 94 (7) 1.00
Problems 440 (25) 227 (52) 3.02 (2.37, 3.87) 95 (24) 5.03 (3.68, 6.87)
Total 1740 553 (32)   189 (11)  
P-value    <0.001   <0.001
Total VFQ score      
No problems 442 (25) 75 (17) 1.00 12 (3) 1.00
Few problems 447 (26) 103 (23) 1.45 (1.02, 2.07) 21 (5) 1.72 (0.82, 3.58)
Moderate vision 456 (26) 136 (30) 2.01 (1.43, 2.83) 41 (9) 3.37 (1.72, 6.60)
Poor vision 438 (25) 269 (61) 6.93 (4.93, 9.75) 168 (38) 19.5 (10.5, 36.5)
Total 1783 583 (33)   242 (14)  
P-value †    <0.001   <0.001
  1. Odds ratios adjusted for age, gender, and general practice throughout (except for age which is adjusted for gender and practice, and gender which is adjusted for age and practice)
  2. † Exposure variable treated as a score. ‡ Slightly lower number of respondents to this domain score, as participants responded that they had stopped going out to see films, plays, or sport events as they were not interested in doing this or due to non eyesight related reasons
  3. *Odds ratios for VA<6/18 based on 463 as 4 practices did not have drivers with VA<6/18