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Table 2 Regression Analysis to study the effect of various risk factors on Diabetic Retinopathy and Sight-threatening Diabetic Retinopathy.

From: Diagonal ear lobe crease in diabetic south Indian population: Is it associated with Diabetic Retinopathy?. Sankara Nethralaya Diabetic Retinopathy Epidemiology And Molecular-genetics Study (SN-DREAMS, Report no. 3)

  Diabetic Retinopathy Sight-threatening Diabetic Retinopathy
  Univariate Analysis Multivariate analysis Univariate Analysis Multivariate analysis
  OR 95% CI p OR 95% CI p OR 95% CI p OR 95% CI p
Gender             
Men 1    1    1    1   
Women 0.64 0.49-0.85 0.002 0.69 0.51-0.93 0.014 0.86 0.42-1.73 0.667 0.92 0.44-1.91 0.822
SES             
Lower 1    1    1    1   
Upper 0.09 0.63-1.29 0.584 0.72 0.48-1.07 0.104 1.24 0.53-2.92 0.617 1.00 0.39-2.52 0.996
Ear lobe crease             
Absent 1    1    1    1   
Present 1.036 0.79-1.37 0.800 0.88 0.65-1.19 0.422 2.02 1.02-4.73 0.043 2.00 0.91-4.34 0.086
Age groups (years)             
40-49 1    1    1    1   
50-59 1.698 1.18-2.44 0.012 1.38 0.94-2.04 0.100 2.39 0.76-7.15 0.135 2.13 0.66-6.80 0.204
60-69 1.665 1.13-2.45 0.010 1.08 0.71-1.66 0.710 2.86 0.88-9.24 0.079 2.43 0.73-8.08 0.148
≥ 70 1.120 0.66-1.88 0.673 0.49 0.26-0.89 0.024 3.22 0.78-13.30 0.106 2.83 0.65-12.32 0.167
Duration of Diabetes (per year increase) 1.110 1.09-1.13 <0.0001 1.11 1.09-1.14 <0.0001 1.050 1.00-1.10 0.046 1.04 0.99-1.09 0.123
HbA1c (per unit increase/ 1.280 1.21-1.36 <0.0001 1.26 1.19-1.35 <0.0001 1.060 0.93-1.22 0.383 1.07 0.93-1.25 0.343
  1. OR: Odds Ratio, SES: Socioeconomic status, CI: Confidence interval, HbA1c: Glycosylated heamoglobin