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Table 3 Characteristics and outcome measures of the included studies

From: Effectiveness of screening preschool children for amblyopia: a systematic review

Reference Study Type Intervention, number (N) of recruited children and age at screening Number of screened children
(% coverage)
Outcome
   Orthoptic screening
(N = 1582, age: 2.5–3 years)
916 (58)  
   vs   
Bray 1996 33 Retrospective cohort study Health visitor screening
(N = 2081, age: 2.5–3 years)
1665 (80) Prevalence of amblyopia at the age of 7 years
   vs   
   GP screening
(N = 1701, age: 2.5–3 years)
1378 (81)  
   Screening
(N = 988, age: 1–2.5 years)
808 (82)  
Eibschitz-Tsimhoni 2000 27
(Israel)
Retrospective cohort study vs   Prevalence of amblyopia and visual acuity in the worse seeing eye at the age of 8 years
   No screening
(N = 782)
  
   Preschool screening
(N = 1347, age 3 years)
1132 (82)  
   vs   
Rasmussen 2000 34
(Sweden)
Randomised controlled clinical trial No preschool screening
(N = 2146)
2097 (98)§ Prevalence of amblyopia and strabismus at the age of 6.5 years
   Both groups:
Current screening programme (age: 4 years)
  
   Intensive screening
(N = 2029, age 8,12,18,25,31,37 mos)
1408 (69)  
   vs   
Williams 2002 31,32
(UK)
Pseudo-randomised* controlled clinical trial Less intensive screening
(N = 1461, age 37 mos)
939 (64) Prevalence of amblyopia and visual acuity in the worse seeing eye at the age of 7.5 years
   Both groups:
Current screening programme (age: 48–60 mos)
  
   Preschool screening
(N = 1516, age 37 mos)
1019 (67)  
   vs   
Williams 2003 28,29,30
(UK)
Prospective cohort study No preschool screening
(N = 5062)
5062 Prevalence of amblyopia and visual acuity in the worse seeing eye at the age of 7.5 years
   Both groups:
Current screening programme
(age: 48–60 mos)
  Psychosocial impairments
  1. * Pseudorandomisation: last digit in day of mother's date of birth was used to assign children to the intervention group.
  2. Visual acuity of children treated with occlusion.
  3. Only children who took part at the final assessment (at the age of 7.5 years) were presented in the publication.
  4. §Refers to the number of children who took part in the current screening programme.