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Table 2 Age-specific cause of presenting visual impairment.

From: Prevalence and causes of visual impairment in a Brazilian population: The Botucatu Eye Study

Eye Pathology Under 20 years
Prevalence (%)
21–50 years
Prevalence (%)
Over 50 years
Prevalence (%)
Cataract 0 (0.0) 3 (3.2) 27 (50.0)
Refractive Error 37 (97.3) 83 (90.2) 10 (18.5)
ARMD 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 9 (16.7)
Glaucoma 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 4 (7.4)
Maculopathy 0 (0.0) 3 (3.3) 2 (3.7)
Retinopathy 1 (2.7) 2 (2.2) 2 (3.7)
Optic Neuropathy 0 (0.0) 1 (1.1) 0 (0.0)
Total 38 (100) 92 (100) 54 (100)
  1. ARMD = Age-related macula degeneration
  2. Presenting visual impairment is the combination of those people with VA < 20/60 but ≥ 20/400 in the better eye, unaided (or with spectacles if worn) and unaided VA (or with spectacles if worn) < 20/400 in the better eye.