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Table 3 Association of presenting visual impairment with gender, age, ethnicity, occupation and general health.

From: Prevalence and causes of visual impairment in a Brazilian population: The Botucatu Eye Study

Variable Univariate
Odds Ratio (95% CI)
P Value Multivariate
Odds Ratio (95% CI)
P Value
GENDER     
Male 1.0    
Female 1.4 (0.99–1.8) 0.06 1.5 (1.1–2.3) 0.02
AGE (Years)     
Linear     
1 1.0   1.0  
Each year after 1 year 1.03 (1.02–1.033) <0.001 1.03 (1.01–1.05) 0.002
Categorical     
0–20 1.0   1.0  
21–50 2.8 (1.7–4.7) <0.001 1.7 (0.60–4.5) 0.32
Over 50 4.1 (2.4–6.9) <0.001 1.8 (0.62–5.4) 0.27
ETHNICITY     
European 1.0   1.0  
Brazilian-African 1.4 (0.75–2.8) 0.26 1.5 (0.74–2.8) 0.28
East Asian 1.4 (0.17–10.7) 0.78 1.2 (0.14–10.2) 0.87
Other 0.82 (0.50–1.4) 0.44 0.85 (0.49–1.5) 0.55
OCCUPATION     
Professional 1.0   1.0  
Tradesperson 0.78 (0.38–1.6) 0.49 0.75 (0.34–1.6) 0.47
Service worker 0.81 (0.46–1.4) 0.48 0.77 (0.41–1.4) 0.41
Manual worker 1.1 (0.68–1.9) 0.62 1.0 (0.58–1.8) 0.98
Retired 2.2 (1.3–3.8) 0.005 2.2 (1.1–4.2) 0.02
Student 0.41 (0.21–0.78) 0.006 0.53 (0.18–1.6) 0.25
GENERAL HEALTH     
1 or more health problems 1.0   1.0  
Healthy 0.59 (0.42–0.85) 0.004 0.94 (0.62–1.4) 0.79
  1. Presenting visual impairment is the combination of those people with VA < 20/60 but ≥ 20/400 in the better eye, unaided (or with spectacles if worn) and unaided VA (or with spectacles if worn) < 20/400 in the better eye. CI = confidence interval.