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Table 2 Results of Schirmer’s I and meibomian gland dysfunction tests in relation to risk factors

From: Prevalence of dry eye syndrome in residents of surgical specialties

Variable Schirmer’s test + Schirmer’s test – Meibomian gland dysfunction stage 1 Meibomian gland dysfunction stage 2 P value
1st year of residency 0 (0 %) 42 (100 %) 27 (64 %) 15 (36 %) 0.003
2nd year of residency 0 (0 %) 54 (100 %) 42 (77 %) 12 (23 %) 0.83
3rd year of residency 0 (0 %) 68 (100 %) 53 (78 %) 15 (22 %) 0.90
4th year of residency 0 (0 %) 34 (100 %) 23 (68 %) 11 (32 %) 0.001
5th year of residency 0 (0 %) 22 (100 %) 20 (91 %) 2 (9 %) 0.10
6th year of residency 0 (0 %) 18 (100 %) 17 (94 %) 1 (6 %) 0.47
7th year of residency 0 (0 %) 8 (100 %) 8 (100 %) 0 (0 %) 0.13
Chronic eye disease 0 (0 %) 74 (100 %) 61 (82 %) 13 (18 %) 0.20
Contact lenses 0 (0 %) 16 (100 %) 15 (94 %) 1 (6 %) 0.08
Refractive surgery 0 (0 %) 28 (100 %) 22 (79 %) 6 (21 %) 0.85
Allergies 0 (0 %) 62 (100 %) 47 (76 %) 15 (24 %) 0.075
Smoking 0 (0 %) 42 (100 %) 26 (62 %) 16 (38 %) 0.009
Hormonal contraceptives 0 (0 %) 16 (100 %) 8 (50 %) 8 (50 %) 0.013
Makeup use 0 (0 %) 58 (100 %) 27 (47 %) 31 (53 %) 0.09
Makeup use, 0–12 h 0 (0 %) 34 (100 %) 21 (62 %) 13 (38 %) 0.025
Makeup use, 12–24 h 0 (0 %) 24 (100 %) 6 (25 %) 18 (75 %) 0.025
Microscope use 0 (0 %) 108 (100 %) 73 (68 %) 35 (32 %) 0.47