Skip to main content

Table 2 Comparative analysis of pediatric DED between urban and rural groups

From: Smartphone use is a risk factor for pediatric dry eye disease according to region and age: a case control study

  Urban Rural P
Subjects (N) 630 286  
Age (years) 9.51 ± 1.00 9.52 ± 1.00 0.91b
Dry eye disease (%) 8.3 2.8 0.03a
Visual acuity (logMAR) 0.42 ± 0.57 0.23 ± 0.45 <0.001b
SE (diopter) −2.13 ± 2.34 −1.98 ± 1.58 0.41b
Use of glass (%) 42.9 32.9 0.04a
Related with DED Risk Factors
 Use of smartphones (%) 61.3 51 0.04a
 Smartphone use/day (hours) 0.93 ± 1.01 0.47 ± 0.69 <0.001b
 Computer use/day (hours) 0.84 ± 0.29 0.68 ± 0.46 <0.001b
 TV use/day (hours) 1.05 ± 0.48 1.15 ± 0.64 0.08b
 Learning/day (hours) 2.50 ± 0.95 2.05 ± 1.07 <0.001b
Related with DED Protective Factors
 Sleep/day (hours) 7.88 ± 0.84 7.84 ± 0.87 0.57b
 Outdoor activity/day (hours) 2.06 ± 1.13 2.57 ± 0.95 <0.001b
  1. DED dry eye disease, SE spherical equivalent, logMAR logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution, TV television
  2. aBy Pearson’s Chi-square test, bBy independent t test