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Table 3 Comparative analysis of pediatric DED between younger (1st to 3rd) and older (4th to 6th) grade

From: Smartphone use is a risk factor for pediatric dry eye disease according to region and age: a case control study

  Younger grade Older grade P
Subjects (N) 452 464  
Region of Urban (%) 69.0 68.5 0.92a
Dry Eye Disease (%) 4 9.1 0.03a
Visual Acuity (LogMAR) 0.28 ± 0.42 0.41 ± 0.48 <0.001b
SE (diopter) −1.77 ± 2.12 −2.39 ± 2.11 <0.001b
Use of Glass (%) 31 48.3 <0.001a
Related with DED Risk Factors
 Use of Smartphones (%) 50.9 65.1 <0.001a
 Smartphone use/day (hours) 0.57 ± 0.76 1.00 ± 1.06 <0.001b
 Computer use/day (hours) 0.74 ± 0.37 0.83 ± 0.35 <0.01b
 TV use/day (hours) 1.03 ± 0.52 1.13 ± 0.55 0.06b
 Learning/day (hours) 2.08 ± 0.95 2.63 ± 1.00 <0.001b
Related with DED Protective Factors
 Sleep/day (hours) 7.93 ± 0.83 7.81 ± 0.87 0.11b
 Outdoor activity/day (hours) 2.49 ± 1.07 1.94 ± 1.07 <0.001b
  1. DED dry eye disease, SE spherical equivalent, logMAR logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution, TV television
  2. aBy Pearson’s Chi-square test, bBy independent t test