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Table 4 Analysis of risk factors and protective factors for pediatric DED

From: Smartphone use is a risk factor for pediatric dry eye disease according to region and age: a case control study

  Normal DED OR (95 % CI) P
Related with DED Risk Factors
Smartphone use/day (hours) 0.62 ± 0.68 3.18 ± 0.97 13.07 (5.99–28.52) <0.001a
Computer use/day (hours) 0.76 ± 0.34 1.10 ± 0.53 0.94 (0.20–4.42) 0.94a
TV use/day (hours) 1.07 ± 0.54 1.18 ± 0.40 0.20 (0.03–1.43) 0.11a
Learning/day (hours) 2.31 ± 1.02 3.10 ± 0.50 2.51 (0.90–7.03) 0.08a
Related with DED Protective Factors
 Sleep/day (hours) 7.88 ± 0.86 7.70 ± 0.61 0.63 (0.22–1.77) 0.38a
 Outdoor activity/day (hours) 2.27 ± 1.12 1.47 ± 0.32 0.33 (0.14–0.79) <0.01a
  1. DED dry eye disease, OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval
  2. aBy Multivariate binominal logistic regression analysis