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Table 3 MRSE, refractive cylinder, UDVA, and CDVA preoperatively, after the initial SMILE and cap-preserving RE-SMILE procedure. t = t-test statistic, p = p-value, z = Wilcoxon signed rank statistic

From: Cap-preserving SMILE Enhancement Surgery

  MRSE(D) Cylinder(D) UDVA(logMAR) CDVA(logMAR)
  Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD
Preoperative −9.36 ± 0. 89 −0.78 ± 0.74 0.93 ± 0.20 0.45 ± 0.12
Post primary SMILE −2.18 ± 0.71 −0.75 ± 0.83 0.40 ± 0.15 0.26 ± 0.20
Significance of changes due to primary SMILE z = − 2.67 p = 0.008 t = − 0.073 p = 0.943 z = −2.692 p = 0.007 t = 3.875 p = 0.005
Post Re-SMILE −0.13 ± 0.68 −0.53 ± 0.34 0.22 ± 0.12 0.21 ± 0.11
Significance of changes due to Re- SMILE t = −5.447 p = 0.001 t = − 730 p = 0.486 t = 3.568 p = 0.007 z = −1.187 p = 0.235