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Table 1 Amblyopia outcome measures and measurements

From: Development of a core outcome set for amblyopia, strabismus and ocular motility disorders: a review to identify outcome measures

Outcome measure domain Studies reported the outcome measure (n/42) Variable subdomains of outcome measure Variable outcome measurements References
Visual acuity 36 (86%) BCVA (median/ mean change,IOD,≥2 line improvement) 38 Uncorrected Distance Visual Acuity UDVA 1 Near Visual Acuity 1 Binocular VA 1 Age appropriate test 23 HOTV 7 ETDRS 5 Snellen eye chart 4 The Crowded Acuity Test (Glasgow Acuity Test) 2 Tumbling E charts 2 Bailey-Lovie 1 Allen Figs. 1 [3, 11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20, 22,23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32,33,34, 36,37,38,39,40, 43,44,45,46,47,48]
Stereopsis 17 (40%) Near Stereopsis/ binocularity/sensory outcomes 16 Stereo sensitivity 1 Randot Preschool Stereoacuity Test 4 Lang stereo test II 2 Bagolini glasses response (at near & distance) 2 The Frisby test 2 [11, 12, 15, 20, 23,24,25,26,27,28, 31, 34, 36, 39, 42, 45, 48]
Adverse events 14 (33%)    [3, 11,12,13, 15, 16, 25, 27, 34, 35, 44, 47,48,49]
Health-related quality of life 9 (21%) HRQoL 9 Emotional impact 1 Social stigma scores 1 Amblyopia Treatment Index 4 Amblyopia and Strabismus Q 2 Psychological Impact Q 2 Patching Success Q 1 CVFQ 1 SPPC 1 VF-14 1 Protection Motivation Theory Q 1 Interviews 1 Mean Rutter behaviour scores 1 [3, 11, 12, 15, 37, 41, 47, 48, 50]
Compliance 8 (19%)   Objective occlusion dose monitoring 3 Parental treatment diaries 2 [12, 15, 25, 27, 30, 34, 37, 44]
Refractive outcomes 5 (12%) Median spherical equivalent 3 Refractive outcome 2 Spherical and cylindrical refraction 1 Manifest and cycloplegic refractions 1 [13, 14, 23, 24, 31]
Ocular alignment 5 (12%)   Simultaneous prism and Cover test SPCT 4 Cover test 1 [27, 31, 34, 42, 44]
Economic data 3 (7%) Cost data 3 Cost- effectiveness 1   [3, 47, 48]
Visual evoked potentials 2 (5%) M-VEP amplitude & latency 1 VEP latency 1   [16, 46]
Detection by Photoscreeners 1 (2%)   MTI photoscreener 1 PowerRefractor 1 PowerRefractor II 1 Plusoptix photoscreener series 1 iScreen 1 Spot 1 [1]
  1. BCVA, Best Corrected Visual Acuity, IOD inter-ocular difference, ETDRS Electronic Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study, UDVA Uncorrected Distance Visual Acuity, HR-QoL Health-related quality of life, Q questionnaire, CVFQ Children’s Visual Function Questionnaire, SPPC Self-Perception Profile for Children, VF-14 Visual Function Index, VEP Visual Evoked Potential, M-VEP multifocal VEP