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Table 1 Amblyopia outcome measures and measurements

From: Development of a core outcome set for amblyopia, strabismus and ocular motility disorders: a review to identify outcome measures

Outcome measure domain Studies reported the outcome measure (n/42) Variable subdomains of outcome measure Variable outcome measurements References
Visual acuity 36 (86%) BCVA (median/ mean change,IOD,≥2 line improvement) 38
Uncorrected Distance Visual Acuity UDVA 1
Near Visual Acuity 1
Binocular VA 1
Age appropriate test 23
HOTV 7
ETDRS 5
Snellen eye chart 4
The Crowded Acuity Test (Glasgow Acuity Test) 2
Tumbling E charts 2
Bailey-Lovie 1
Allen Figs. 1
[3, 11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20, 22,23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32,33,34, 36,37,38,39,40, 43,44,45,46,47,48]
Stereopsis 17 (40%) Near Stereopsis/
binocularity/sensory outcomes 16
Stereo sensitivity 1
Randot Preschool Stereoacuity Test 4
Lang stereo test II 2
Bagolini glasses response (at near & distance) 2
The Frisby test 2
[11, 12, 15, 20, 23,24,25,26,27,28, 31, 34, 36, 39, 42, 45, 48]
Adverse events 14 (33%)    [3, 11,12,13, 15, 16, 25, 27, 34, 35, 44, 47,48,49]
Health-related quality of life 9 (21%) HRQoL 9
Emotional impact 1
Social stigma scores 1
Amblyopia Treatment Index 4
Amblyopia
and Strabismus Q 2
Psychological Impact Q 2
Patching Success Q 1
CVFQ 1
SPPC 1
VF-14 1
Protection Motivation Theory Q 1
Interviews 1
Mean Rutter behaviour scores 1
[3, 11, 12, 15, 37, 41, 47, 48, 50]
Compliance 8 (19%)   Objective occlusion dose monitoring 3
Parental treatment diaries 2
[12, 15, 25, 27, 30, 34, 37, 44]
Refractive outcomes 5 (12%) Median spherical equivalent 3
Refractive outcome 2
Spherical and cylindrical refraction 1
Manifest and cycloplegic refractions 1 [13, 14, 23, 24, 31]
Ocular alignment 5 (12%)   Simultaneous prism and
Cover test SPCT 4
Cover test 1
[27, 31, 34, 42, 44]
Economic data 3 (7%) Cost data 3
Cost- effectiveness 1
  [3, 47, 48]
Visual evoked potentials 2 (5%) M-VEP amplitude & latency 1
VEP latency 1
  [16, 46]
Detection by Photoscreeners 1 (2%)   MTI photoscreener 1
PowerRefractor 1
PowerRefractor II 1
Plusoptix photoscreener series 1
iScreen 1
Spot 1
[1]
  1. BCVA, Best Corrected Visual Acuity, IOD inter-ocular difference, ETDRS Electronic Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study, UDVA Uncorrected Distance Visual Acuity, HR-QoL Health-related quality of life, Q questionnaire, CVFQ Children’s Visual Function Questionnaire, SPPC Self-Perception Profile for Children, VF-14 Visual Function Index, VEP Visual Evoked Potential, M-VEP multifocal VEP