Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 2 Strabismus outcome measures and measurements

From: Development of a core outcome set for amblyopia, strabismus and ocular motility disorders: a review to identify outcome measures

Outcome measure domain Studies reported the outcome measure (n/33) Variable subdomains of outcome measure Variable outcome measurements References
Motor alignment 26 (79%) Motor alignment / angle of deviation 26 Orthotropia or microtropia 1 Manifest strabismus 1 Hyperdeviation 1 Prism and alternate cover test 12 Simultaneous prism and cover test 8 Cover-uncover test 5 Synoptophore 4 Alternate cover test 3 Hirschberg test 3 Krimsky 3 Prism Bar Cover Test 1 Prism under cover test 1 Corneal reflection tests 1 [2, 4, 5, 42, 52,53,54,55,56,57,58,59,60, 63, 65,66,67,68, 70, 71, 74,75,76,77,78,79]
Binocularity 21 (64%) Presence and quality of binocularity /binocular single vision 9 Stereoacuity at near 8 Steroeacuity at near & distance 4 Sensory fusion 2 Randot stereoacuity test 3 TNO 3 Titmus Housefly 3 Bagolini glasses 2 Worth’s 4 dot test 2 Frisbye Davis Distance (FD2) stereotest 1 Simultaneous perception 1 Suppression 1 Presence of monofixation 1 [2, 4, 5, 42, 52, 53, 55,56,57,58,59,60, 66,67,68, 71, 73, 75,76,77, 79]
Adverse events 20 (61%) Induced A or V pattern 2 Induced vertical deviation 2 Development of DVD 2 Induced incomitance 2 Intolerable diplopia 2 Development of amblyopia 2 Induced ptosis 2 Long-term Change: re-operation rate/ recurrence /overcorrection/post-operative drift 2 Subconjunctival haemorrhage 1 Discomfort/abnormal sensory experiences 1 Tangent screen (in degrees) 1 [2, 4, 5, 42, 53,54,55,56, 58,59,60,61, 63, 65, 68,69,70,71, 76, 78]
Health-related quality of Life 16 (48%) Improvement in quality of life 14 Patient satisfaction 2 Anxiety 1 Depression 1 Social anxiety and social avoidance 1 Well-being 1 Intermittent Exotropia Q 6 Amblyopia and Strabismus Q 4 Adult Strabismus Q 4 Age-specific QoL assessments 2 SF-36/ SF-8/ SF-12 2 EQ-5D 2 NEI-VFQ 2 VF-14 2 EYE-Q 2 Quality of life questionnaires 2 Vision-specific quality-of-life instruments 1 Any measure of patient or parent satisfaction relating to improvement to lifestyle 1 VFQ-25 1 The amblyopia treatment index 1 CVFQ 1 VQoL_CYP 1 CAT-QoL 1 PPQ 1 LVP-FVQ 1 [2, 4, 5, 50, 51, 53, 57, 58, 61, 62, 64, 65, 72, 73, 78, 79]
Visual acuity 8 (24%) VA tests/BCVA 5 Amblyopia 3 Log MAR or log MAR equivalent 4 Snellen 1 [42, 52, 59, 63, 73, 77,78,79]
Control of deviation 8 (24%) Control 7 Control of the near angle 1 Ability to maintain /control phoria with a filter 1 Control of DVD 1 Newcastle Control Score 5 Holmes and Mohney Office Control Scale 2 Mayo Score 2 Petrunak and Rao’s five-point Scale 1 [5, 52, 59, 68, 74, 76, 78, 79]
Fusional vergence 5 (15%) Fusional vergence or amplitude for distance and near 3 Motor fusion test at near or distance or both 2 Base out or base in prism test/ Synoptophore 1 A prism bar 1 [2, 4, 42, 66, 68]
Economic outcomes 4 (12%) Economics (e.g. length of stay in hospital, hours of surgeons time) 2 Use of health-care resources 2 NHS costs 2 Costs to families accessing the treatments 2   [2, 65, 78, 79]
Ocular movements 3 (9%) Ocular movements 3 Inferior oblique function 1 DVD 1 DHD 1 Ordinal scale from 0 to 4+, grade 0 or 1+ is satisfactory 1 DVD grading scale of 1–4 1 DHD is measured by reversed fixation test 1 [54, 59, 60]
Re-operation rates 2 (6%)    [55, 65]
AC/A ratio 1 (3%)    [52]
Abnormal head posture 1 (3%)    [59]
Presence of latent nystagmus 1 (3%)   Video-oculography 1 [59]
Detection of strabismus using refraction devices 1 (3%)   Plusoptix Vision Screener 1 [77]
  1. TNO The Netherland Organisation, DVD Dissociated Vertical Deviation, DHD Dissociated Horizontal deviation, BCVA Best Corrected Visual Acuity, HR-QoL Health-related quality of life, Q questionnaire, SF Short Form, EQ5D EuroQoL-5D, EYE-Q Effects of Youngsters’ Eyesight on Quality of Life, CVFQ Children’s Visual Function Questionnaire, VQoL-CYP Vision-related Quality of Life of Children and Young People, CAT-QoL Children’s Amblyopia Treatment Quality of Life Questionnaire, PPQ Perceived Psychosocial Questionnaire, LVP-FVQ LV Prasad–Functional Vision Questionnaire, NEI-VFQ National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire, VF-14 Visual Function Index, NHS National Health Service