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Table 2 Strabismus outcome measures and measurements

From: Development of a core outcome set for amblyopia, strabismus and ocular motility disorders: a review to identify outcome measures

Outcome measure domain Studies reported the outcome measure (n/33) Variable subdomains of outcome measure Variable outcome measurements References
Motor alignment 26 (79%) Motor alignment /
angle of deviation 26
Orthotropia or microtropia 1
Manifest strabismus 1
Hyperdeviation 1
Prism and alternate cover test 12
Simultaneous prism and cover test 8
Cover-uncover test 5
Synoptophore 4
Alternate cover test 3
Hirschberg test 3
Krimsky 3
Prism Bar Cover Test 1
Prism under cover test 1
Corneal reflection tests 1
[2, 4, 5, 42, 52,53,54,55,56,57,58,59,60, 63, 65,66,67,68, 70, 71, 74,75,76,77,78,79]
Binocularity 21 (64%) Presence and quality of binocularity
/binocular single vision 9
Stereoacuity at near 8
Steroeacuity at near & distance 4
Sensory fusion 2
Randot stereoacuity test 3
TNO 3
Titmus Housefly 3
Bagolini glasses 2
Worth’s 4 dot test 2
Frisbye Davis Distance (FD2) stereotest 1
Simultaneous perception 1
Suppression 1
Presence of monofixation 1
[2, 4, 5, 42, 52, 53, 55,56,57,58,59,60, 66,67,68, 71, 73, 75,76,77, 79]
Adverse events 20 (61%) Induced A or V pattern 2
Induced vertical deviation 2
Development of DVD 2
Induced incomitance 2
Intolerable diplopia 2
Development of amblyopia 2
Induced ptosis 2
Long-term Change: re-operation rate/ recurrence /overcorrection/post-operative drift 2
Subconjunctival haemorrhage 1
Discomfort/abnormal
sensory experiences 1
Tangent screen (in degrees) 1 [2, 4, 5, 42, 53,54,55,56, 58,59,60,61, 63, 65, 68,69,70,71, 76, 78]
Health-related quality of Life 16 (48%) Improvement in quality of life 14
Patient satisfaction 2
Anxiety 1
Depression 1
Social anxiety and social avoidance 1
Well-being 1
Intermittent Exotropia Q 6
Amblyopia and Strabismus Q 4
Adult Strabismus Q 4
Age-specific QoL assessments 2
SF-36/ SF-8/ SF-12 2
EQ-5D 2
NEI-VFQ 2
VF-14 2
EYE-Q 2
Quality of life questionnaires 2
Vision-specific quality-of-life instruments 1
Any measure of patient or parent satisfaction relating to improvement to lifestyle 1
VFQ-25 1
The amblyopia treatment index 1
CVFQ 1
VQoL_CYP 1
CAT-QoL 1
PPQ 1
LVP-FVQ 1
[2, 4, 5, 50, 51, 53, 57, 58, 61, 62, 64, 65, 72, 73, 78, 79]
Visual acuity 8 (24%) VA tests/BCVA 5
Amblyopia 3
Log MAR or log MAR equivalent 4
Snellen 1
[42, 52, 59, 63, 73, 77,78,79]
Control of deviation 8 (24%) Control 7
Control of the near angle 1
Ability to maintain /control phoria with a filter 1
Control of DVD 1
Newcastle
Control Score 5
Holmes and Mohney Office Control Scale 2
Mayo Score 2
Petrunak and Rao’s five-point Scale 1
[5, 52, 59, 68, 74, 76, 78, 79]
Fusional vergence 5 (15%) Fusional vergence or amplitude for distance and near 3
Motor fusion test at near or distance or both 2
Base out or base in prism test/ Synoptophore 1
A prism bar 1
[2, 4, 42, 66, 68]
Economic outcomes 4 (12%) Economics (e.g. length of stay in hospital, hours of surgeons time) 2
Use of health-care resources 2
NHS costs 2
Costs to families accessing the treatments 2
  [2, 65, 78, 79]
Ocular movements 3 (9%) Ocular movements 3
Inferior oblique function 1
DVD 1
DHD 1
Ordinal scale from 0 to 4+, grade 0 or 1+ is satisfactory 1
DVD grading scale of 1–4 1
DHD is measured by reversed fixation test 1
[54, 59, 60]
Re-operation rates 2 (6%)    [55, 65]
AC/A ratio 1 (3%)    [52]
Abnormal head posture 1 (3%)    [59]
Presence of latent nystagmus 1 (3%)   Video-oculography 1 [59]
Detection of strabismus using refraction devices 1 (3%)   Plusoptix Vision Screener 1 [77]
  1. TNO The Netherland Organisation, DVD Dissociated Vertical Deviation, DHD Dissociated Horizontal deviation, BCVA Best Corrected Visual Acuity, HR-QoL Health-related quality of life, Q questionnaire, SF Short Form, EQ5D EuroQoL-5D, EYE-Q Effects of Youngsters’ Eyesight on Quality of Life, CVFQ Children’s Visual Function Questionnaire, VQoL-CYP Vision-related Quality of Life of Children and Young People, CAT-QoL Children’s Amblyopia Treatment Quality of Life Questionnaire, PPQ Perceived Psychosocial Questionnaire, LVP-FVQ LV Prasad–Functional Vision Questionnaire, NEI-VFQ National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire, VF-14 Visual Function Index, NHS National Health Service