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Table 4 Ocular motility disorder outcome measures and measurements

From: Development of a core outcome set for amblyopia, strabismus and ocular motility disorders: a review to identify outcome measures

Outcome measure domain Studies reported the outcome measure (n/68) Variable subdomains of outcome measure Variable outcome measurements References
Range of eye movement 23 (34%) Range of eye movement/Change in extraocular motility 14
Determination of range of motility 4
Oculomotor range/amount of ductions 4
Restriction of eye movements 3
Motility assessment 3
Quantitative measurement of eye movement 1
Assessment of ocular muscle contracture 1
Gradation of movements 2
A scale of − 4 underaction to + 4 overaction, with 0 being normal 2
Forced duction test 2
The CROM score 2
A and V patterns 1
Two-step test 1
Monocular (ductions) and binocular (versions) 1
Cover/uncover test 1
Videotaped, measured the nine positions of gaze directly on photographs 1
Downshoot 1
[80,81,82, 89, 90, 92, 93, 95, 102, 108, 111, 115, 116, 119, 121, 129, 130, 132, 134, 138, 139, 141, 144]
Health-related quality of Life 19 (28%) Improvement in HRQoL 16
Patient satisfaction and functional measurements 2
Participant and physician- reported global health assessment 1
Aesthetic outcome 1
Appearance of the eye 1
Functional outcome 1
Being able to drive after strabismus surgery 1
Validated questionnaires 6
Short Form 36 (SF-36) 2
Sickness Index Profile (SIP) 1
Visual analogue scale 1
NEI-VFQ-25 3
Visual analogue scale 1
[80, 82, 84, 87, 91, 95,96,97, 104, 107, 109,110,111, 115, 116, 125, 126, 142, 143]
Improvement in diplopia 18 (26%) Recovery in diplopia 18
Disappearance of diplopia in primary gaze 2
No diplopia in primary position and downgaze
with prisms or without prisms 1
Subjective diplopia score (Gorman scale) 5
Diplopia score within GO-QOL questionnaire 1
A field diplopia test 1
[89, 93, 101, 105, 106, 108, 111, 112, 114,115,116, 119, 127, 133, 134, 141, 144, 146]
Visual acuity 15 (22%) Visual Acuity/BCVA 11
Binocular BCVA 5
Near VA 1
Estimated VA 1
Log MAR or Snellen 4
Snellen 1
Pattern reversal VEP 1
Subjective score within GO-QoL questionnaire 1
[85,86,87, 96,97,98, 101, 108, 112, 119, 120, 124, 126, 145, 147]
Motor alignment 14 (21%) Deviation 4
Objective torsion 4
Ocular alignment
testing 2
Phoria 2
Alignment in primary position 1
Incomitance 1
A & V pattern 1
Pattern deviation and horizontal deviation 2
Subjective torsion 1
PACT 2
Indirect ophthalmoscopy 2
Cover tests 1
PCT 1
Krimsky 1
Synoptophore 1
Maddox rod to test overcorrection > 20 degrees 1
Double Maddox rod test 1
[106, 110, 121, 124, 128, 130,131,132, 134, 136, 138,139,140, 147]
Adverse events 10 (15%) Related to steroids 2
Related to Rituximab 1
Related to radiotherapy 1
Related to acupuncture 1
Surgical complications 1
Vision loss/retro orbital hematoma post reconstruction 1
Surgery-induced strabismus or visual loss 1
Post op drift 1
  [82, 84, 93, 99, 111, 126, 127, 130, 136, 146]
Improvement in symptoms 9 (13%) CI symptoms 5
Ocular myasthenia symptoms 1
Oscillopsia or blur in nystagmus 1
Patient-reported symptoms post brain injury 1
(CISS) Version-15/CISS score 6
Patient record or notes/questionnaire 1
[80, 117, 123,124,125, 127, 128, 137, 147]
Improvement in abnormal head posture 7 (10%)   (In degrees) 2
Inspection 1
[106, 120, 126, 129, 131, 132, 134]
Increasing the field of binocular single vision (BSV) 4 (6%)   Goldman
perimeter with the
score system of
Sullivan 1
Worth four dot test 1
CROM device 1
[80, 110, 130, 134]
Stereopsis 4 (6%) Presence of stereopsis 2
Steroacuity 2
TNO stereo test 1 [80, 106, 124, 140]
  1. HR-QoL Health-related quality of life, Q questionnaire, CROM cervical range of motion, NEI-VFQ National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire, SF Short Form, BCVA Best Corrected Visual Acuity, VEP Visual Evoked Potential, GO-QoL Graves Ophthalmopathy Quality of Life, APCT Alternate Prism Cover Test, PCT Prism Cover Test, TED Thyroid Eye Disease, CISS Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey, TNO The Netherland Organisation