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Table 4 Ocular motility disorder outcome measures and measurements

From: Development of a core outcome set for amblyopia, strabismus and ocular motility disorders: a review to identify outcome measures

Outcome measure domain Studies reported the outcome measure (n/68) Variable subdomains of outcome measure Variable outcome measurements References
Range of eye movement 23 (34%) Range of eye movement/Change in extraocular motility 14 Determination of range of motility 4 Oculomotor range/amount of ductions 4 Restriction of eye movements 3 Motility assessment 3 Quantitative measurement of eye movement 1 Assessment of ocular muscle contracture 1 Gradation of movements 2 A scale of − 4 underaction to + 4 overaction, with 0 being normal 2 Forced duction test 2 The CROM score 2 A and V patterns 1 Two-step test 1 Monocular (ductions) and binocular (versions) 1 Cover/uncover test 1 Videotaped, measured the nine positions of gaze directly on photographs 1 Downshoot 1 [80,81,82, 89, 90, 92, 93, 95, 102, 108, 111, 115, 116, 119, 121, 129, 130, 132, 134, 138, 139, 141, 144]
Health-related quality of Life 19 (28%) Improvement in HRQoL 16 Patient satisfaction and functional measurements 2 Participant and physician- reported global health assessment 1 Aesthetic outcome 1 Appearance of the eye 1 Functional outcome 1 Being able to drive after strabismus surgery 1 Validated questionnaires 6 Short Form 36 (SF-36) 2 Sickness Index Profile (SIP) 1 Visual analogue scale 1 NEI-VFQ-25 3 Visual analogue scale 1 [80, 82, 84, 87, 91, 95,96,97, 104, 107, 109,110,111, 115, 116, 125, 126, 142, 143]
Improvement in diplopia 18 (26%) Recovery in diplopia 18 Disappearance of diplopia in primary gaze 2 No diplopia in primary position and downgaze with prisms or without prisms 1 Subjective diplopia score (Gorman scale) 5 Diplopia score within GO-QOL questionnaire 1 A field diplopia test 1 [89, 93, 101, 105, 106, 108, 111, 112, 114,115,116, 119, 127, 133, 134, 141, 144, 146]
Visual acuity 15 (22%) Visual Acuity/BCVA 11 Binocular BCVA 5 Near VA 1 Estimated VA 1 Log MAR or Snellen 4 Snellen 1 Pattern reversal VEP 1 Subjective score within GO-QoL questionnaire 1 [85,86,87, 96,97,98, 101, 108, 112, 119, 120, 124, 126, 145, 147]
Motor alignment 14 (21%) Deviation 4 Objective torsion 4 Ocular alignment testing 2 Phoria 2 Alignment in primary position 1 Incomitance 1 A & V pattern 1 Pattern deviation and horizontal deviation 2 Subjective torsion 1 PACT 2 Indirect ophthalmoscopy 2 Cover tests 1 PCT 1 Krimsky 1 Synoptophore 1 Maddox rod to test overcorrection > 20 degrees 1 Double Maddox rod test 1 [106, 110, 121, 124, 128, 130,131,132, 134, 136, 138,139,140, 147]
Adverse events 10 (15%) Related to steroids 2 Related to Rituximab 1 Related to radiotherapy 1 Related to acupuncture 1 Surgical complications 1 Vision loss/retro orbital hematoma post reconstruction 1 Surgery-induced strabismus or visual loss 1 Post op drift 1   [82, 84, 93, 99, 111, 126, 127, 130, 136, 146]
Improvement in symptoms 9 (13%) CI symptoms 5 Ocular myasthenia symptoms 1 Oscillopsia or blur in nystagmus 1 Patient-reported symptoms post brain injury 1 (CISS) Version-15/CISS score 6 Patient record or notes/questionnaire 1 [80, 117, 123,124,125, 127, 128, 137, 147]
Improvement in abnormal head posture 7 (10%)   (In degrees) 2 Inspection 1 [106, 120, 126, 129, 131, 132, 134]
Increasing the field of binocular single vision (BSV) 4 (6%)   Goldman perimeter with the score system of Sullivan 1 Worth four dot test 1 CROM device 1 [80, 110, 130, 134]
Stereopsis 4 (6%) Presence of stereopsis 2 Steroacuity 2 TNO stereo test 1 [80, 106, 124, 140]
  1. HR-QoL Health-related quality of life, Q questionnaire, CROM cervical range of motion, NEI-VFQ National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire, SF Short Form, BCVA Best Corrected Visual Acuity, VEP Visual Evoked Potential, GO-QoL Graves Ophthalmopathy Quality of Life, APCT Alternate Prism Cover Test, PCT Prism Cover Test, TED Thyroid Eye Disease, CISS Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey, TNO The Netherland Organisation