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Table 3 Rate of Convergence Insufficiency and Accommodative Insufficiency for age range between 7 and 19. (CI-convergence insufficiency; AI-accommodative insufficiency)

From: Convergence insufficiency and accommodative insufficiency in children

Study (Author/year) Country Age range Sample size Prevalence CI (%) Prevalence AI (%)
Low High Definite with CI without CI
Rouse et al./1998 [7] USA 8–12 428 33 12 6
Rouse et al./1999 [9] USA 9–13 453 8,4 8,8 4,2 9,9 11,5
Borsting et al. /2003 [2] USA 8–15 392 10,5 12,7 4,6 10,5
White and Major /2004 [22] USA 7–19 129 7,75
Marran 2006 [5] USA 11,5 ± 0,63 299 18 3,3 4,7
Davis et al./2016 [16] USA 8–16 484 31,4 14,7 17,8
Menjivar et al./2018 [18] USA 9–14 282 19,8 8,2
Wajuihian and Hansraj/2016 [10] S/Africa 13–19 1211 11,8 6 4,3 1,9
Hussaindeen et al./2016 [17] India 7–17 920 16,5 0,2
Present study Portugal 10–14 292 7,2 4,8 2 3,1 6,8