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Table 5 Agreement by comparing findings of sample of same images (captured by physicians) graded by retinologist (inter-grader agreement: physician grader 1 or 2 vs retinologist) (n = 212, 424 image sets)

From: Diagnostic test accuracy of diabetic retinopathy screening by physician graders using a hand-held non-mydriatic retinal camera at a tertiary level medical clinic

Index Test Sensitivity (95% CI) (%) Specificity (95% CI) (%) Kappa value (95% CI) (k)
Any DR grading
Non-mydriatic image
 Grader 1 92.3 (86.4, 98.2) 96.8 (94.5, 99.1) 0.89 (0.83, 0.95)
 Grader 2 84.9 (77.3, 92.5) 94.9 (92.1, 97.7) 0.80 (0.73, 0.88)
Mydriatic image
 Grader 1 90.2 (85.0, 95.5) 96.7 (94.6, 98.8) 0.88 (0.82, 0.93)
 Grader 2 90.5 (85.5, 95.6) 95.0 (92.5, 97.6) 0.85 (0.80, 0.91)
Referable DR grading a
Non-mydriatic image
 Grader 1 80.0 (64.3, 95.7) 99.3 (98.3, 100.3) 0.84 (0.72, 0.96)
 Grader 2 79.2 (62.3, 95.4) 98.3 (96.9, 99.8) 0.77 (0.64, 0.91)
Mydriatic image
 Grader 1 77.1 (63.2, 91.1) 98.9 (97.8, 100.0) 0.80 (0.69, 0.91)
 Grader 2 97.0 (91.1, 102.9) 97.6 (96.4, 99.2) 0.85 (0.76, 0.94)
Maculopathy grading b
Non-mydriatic image
 Grader 1 94.3 (86.6, 102.0) 97.0 (94.9, 99.0) 0.85 (0.76, 0.94)
 Grader 2 75.0 (61.6, 88.5) 98.2 (96.7, 99.8) 0.77 (0.66, 0.88)
Mydriatic image
 Grader 1 88.1 (79.9, 96.4) 96.5 (94.5, 98.4) 0.82 (0.74, 0.90)
 Grader 2 76.6 (66.2, 86.9) 98.5 (97.3, 99.8) 0.80 (0.72, 0.89)
  1. a-Referable level DR – moderate non-proliferative DR and above
  2. b-Maculopathy – presence of haemorrhage/s or exudates within 2-disc diameters of the centre of fovea