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Table 2 Summary of skills assessed, measured outcomes and effect

From: Simulation training in vitreoretinal surgery: a systematic review

Article Year Skills trained Study typea Participants Measured outcomes Summary of effect
Grodin et al. [29] 2008 Complex procedure Single group pre-post test 29 residents, 10 fellows, 6 surgeons (1) Performance curves (1) Improvement (NR)
Jonas et al. [23] 2003 Complex procedure, intraocular navigation Randomized controlled trial 14 students or residents (1) Skill acquisition (2) Iatrogenic damage (3) Performance curves (1) Simulator-trained > no training (NS) (2) Simulator-trained > no training (NS) (3) Improvement*
Rossi et al. [24] 2004 Complex procedure, intraocular navigation Nonrandomized group comparison 6 students, 24 residents, 14 surgeons (1) Intraocular navigation (2) Performance curves (3) Skill assessment† (4) Iatrogenic damage (1) Students < Surgeons* (2) Improvement* (3) Students < Residents*, Residents < Surgeons* (4) Students < Residents < Surgeons (NR)
Solverson et al. [25] 2009 Intraocular navigation Nonrandomized group comparison 18 residents, 7 surgeons (1) Intraocular navigation (2) Instrument handling (3) Skill assessment† (4) Performance curves (1) Residents and fellows < Surgeons* (2) Residents and fellows < Surgeons* (3) Residents and fellows < Surgeons* (4) Residents and fellows improved (NR)
Thomsen et al. [27] 2017 Complex procedure, intraocular navigation, instrument handling Nonrandomized group comparison 12 residents, 3 surgeons (1) Skill assessment† (2) Performance curves (1) Residents < Surgeons* (2) No difference at final, i.e. residents improved*
Vergmann et al. [26] 2017 Complex procedure, intraocular navigation, instrument handling Nonrandomized group comparison 20 students, 10 residents, 5 surgeons (1) Instrument handling (2) Intraocular navigation (3) Skill assessment† (4) Performance curves (1) Students and residents < Surgeons* (2) Students and residents < Surgeons* (3) Students and residents < Surgeons* (4) Students and residents improved*
Yeh et al. [28] 2011 Complex procedure, instrument handling Single group posttest only 8 residents, 5 fellows (1) Survey (1) Three of four statements‡ got positive feedback
  1. NR, significance level not reported; NS, not significant (p > 0.05); a, as categorized in context with desired outcomes; *, statistically significant (p < 0.05); †, related to multiple outcomes; ‡, “improved understanding of vitreoretinal surgery”, “mimic of basic vitreoretinal surgery”, “helpfulness in vitreoretinal fellowship education”