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Table 2 Summary of skills assessed, measured outcomes and effect

From: Simulation training in vitreoretinal surgery: a systematic review

Article Year Skills trained Study typea Participants Measured outcomes Summary of effect
Grodin et al. [29] 2008 Complex procedure Single group pre-post test 29 residents, 10 fellows, 6 surgeons (1) Performance curves (1) Improvement (NR)
Jonas et al. [23] 2003 Complex procedure, intraocular navigation Randomized controlled trial 14 students or residents (1) Skill acquisition
(2) Iatrogenic damage
(3) Performance curves
(1) Simulator-trained > no training (NS)
(2) Simulator-trained > no training (NS)
(3) Improvement*
Rossi et al. [24] 2004 Complex procedure, intraocular navigation Nonrandomized group comparison 6 students, 24 residents, 14 surgeons (1) Intraocular navigation
(2) Performance curves
(3) Skill assessment†
(4) Iatrogenic damage
(1) Students < Surgeons*
(2) Improvement*
(3) Students < Residents*, Residents < Surgeons*
(4) Students < Residents < Surgeons (NR)
Solverson et al. [25] 2009 Intraocular navigation Nonrandomized group comparison 18 residents, 7 surgeons (1) Intraocular navigation
(2) Instrument handling
(3) Skill assessment†
(4) Performance curves
(1) Residents and fellows < Surgeons*
(2) Residents and fellows < Surgeons*
(3) Residents and fellows < Surgeons*
(4) Residents and fellows improved (NR)
Thomsen et al. [27] 2017 Complex procedure, intraocular navigation, instrument handling Nonrandomized group comparison 12 residents, 3 surgeons (1) Skill assessment†
(2) Performance curves
(1) Residents < Surgeons*
(2) No difference at final, i.e. residents improved*
Vergmann et al. [26] 2017 Complex procedure, intraocular navigation, instrument handling Nonrandomized group comparison 20 students, 10 residents, 5 surgeons (1) Instrument handling
(2) Intraocular navigation
(3) Skill assessment†
(4) Performance curves
(1) Students and residents < Surgeons*
(2) Students and residents < Surgeons*
(3) Students and residents < Surgeons*
(4) Students and residents improved*
Yeh et al. [28] 2011 Complex procedure, instrument handling Single group posttest only 8 residents, 5 fellows (1) Survey (1) Three of four statements‡ got positive feedback
  1. NR, significance level not reported; NS, not significant (p > 0.05); a, as categorized in context with desired outcomes; *, statistically significant (p < 0.05); †, related to multiple outcomes; ‡, “improved understanding of vitreoretinal surgery”, “mimic of basic vitreoretinal surgery”, “helpfulness in vitreoretinal fellowship education”