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Table 3 ANOVA of total hemorrhage area, hemorrhage lesion number, maximum hemorrhage area, total exudation area, exudation lesion number, and maximum exudation area among different DR stages

From: The diagnostic accuracy of an intelligent and automated fundus disease image assessment system with lesion quantitative function (SmartEye) in diabetic patients

Index Frequency Lesion area or number (x ± s) F P
Total hemorrhage area    16.034 < 0.001
aGroup 1 39 921.05 ± 1319.560   
aGroup 2 29 15,218.59 ± 17,031.178   
aGroup 3 23 16,479.22 ± 15,613.505   
Hemorrhage lesion number    37.100 < 0.001
 Group 1 39 3.26 ± 2.702   
 Group 2 29 26.62 ± 17.551   
 Group 3 23 11.35 ± 9.384   
Maximum hemorrhage area    17.146 < 0.001
 Group 1 39 636.03 ± 1021.743   
 Group 2 29 3595.55 ± 3211.929   
 Group 3 23 7133.70 ± 7550.703   
Total exudation area    10.553 0.001
 Group 1 39 1496.46 ± 2699.786   
 Group 2 29 6589.90 ± 10,347.651   
 Group 3 23 15,062.87 ± 18,862.476   
Exudation lesion number    5.552 0.005
 Group 1 39 6.00 ± 10.665   
 Group 2 29 20.66 ± 26.203   
 Group 3 23 11.96 ± 14.729   
Maximum exudation area    15.256 < 0.001
 Group 1 39 578.87 ± 1363.809   
 Group 2 29 1622.69 ± 3186.810   
 Group 3 23 7084.78 ± 8306.680   
  1. a Group 1, mild NPDR and moderate NPDR; group 2, severe NPDR; group 3, PDR