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Table 4 Comparison of total hemorrhage area, hemorrhage lesion number, maximum hemorrhage area, total exudation area, exudation lesion number, and maximum exudation area among different DR stages

From: The diagnostic accuracy of an intelligent and automated fundus disease image assessment system with lesion quantitative function (SmartEye) in diabetic patients

Dependent variable Group Mean difference Standard error P 95% Confidence Interval
Lower limit Upper limit
Hemorrhage area aGroup 1 aGroup 2 −14,297.535* 3042.766 < 0.001 −20,344.39 − 8250.68
aGroup 3 −15,558.166* 3262.459 < 0.001 −22,041.62 − 9074.71
Group 2 Group 1 14,297.535* 3042.766 < 0.001 8250.68 20,344.39
Group 3 − 1260.631 3464.848 .717 − 8146.29 5625.03
Group 3 Group 1 15,558.166* 3262.459 < 0.001 9074.71 22,041.62
Group 2 1260.631 3464.848 .717 − 5625.03 8146.29
Hemorrhage lesion number Group 1 Group 2 −23.364* 2.721 < 0.001 −28.77 −17.96
Group 3 −8.091* 2.918 .007 −13.89 −2.29
Group 2 Group 1 23.364* 2.721 < 0.001 17.96 28.77
Group 3 15.273* 3.099 < 0.001 9.11 21.43
Group 3 Group 1 8.091* 2.918 .007 2.29 13.89
Group 2 −15.273* 3.099 < 0.001 −21.43 −9.11
Maximum hemorrhage area Group 1 Group 2 − 2959.526* 1039.915 .006 − 5026.14 − 892.91
Group 3 − 6497.670* 1114.998 < 0.001 − 8713.49 − 4281.85
Group 2 Group 1 2959.526* 1039.915 .006 892.91 5026.14
Group 3 − 3538.144* 1184.168 .004 − 5891.43 − 1184.86
Group 3 Group 1 6497.670* 1114.998 < 0.001 4281.85 8713.49
Group 2 3538.144* 1184.168 .004 1184.86 5891.43
Exudation area Group 1 Group 2 − 5093.435 2754.178 .068 −10,566.79 379.92
Group 3 −13,566.408* 2953.034 < 0.001 −19,434.94 − 7697.87
Group 2 Group 1 5093.435 2754.178 .068 − 379.92 10,566.79
Group 3 − 8472.973* 3136.228 .008 −14,705.57 − 2240.38
Group 3 Group 1 13,566.408* 2953.034 < 0.001 7697.87 19,434.94
Group 2 8472.973* 3136.228 .008 2240.38 14,705.57
Exudation lesion number Group 1 Group 2 −14.655* 4.399 .001 −23.40 −5.91
Group 3 −5.957 4.716 .210 −15.33 3.42
Group 2 Group 1 14.655* 4.399 .001 5.91 23.40
Group 3 8.699 5.009 .086 −1.26 18.65
Group 3 Group 1 5.957 4.716 .210 −3.42 15.33
Group 2 −8.699 5.009 .086 −18.65 1.26
Maximum exudation area Group 1 Group 2 − 1043.818 1131.248 .359 − 3291.94 1204.30
Group 3 − 6505.911* 1212.926 < 0.001 − 8916.35 − 4095.48
Group 2 Group 1 1043.818 1131.248 .359 − 1204.30 3291.94
Group 3 − 5462.093* 1288.171 < 0.001 − 8022.06 − 2902.12
Group 3 Group 1 6505.911* 1212.926 < 0.001 4095.48 8916.35
Group 2 5462.093* 1288.171 < 0.001 2902.12 8022.06
  1. *p < 0.05
  2. a Group 1, mild NPDR and moderate NPDR; group 2, severe NPDR; group 3, PDR