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Table 2 Subgroup analysis and meta-regression

From: The effect of diabetes on corneal endothelium: a meta-analysis

Subgroup No.of studies Fixed-effects model Meta-regression Heterogeneity
SMD (95%) p-value P value I2 (%) P-value
All 18 −0.352(− 0.538, − 0.166) 0.000*   85.7% 0.000*
Diabetes mellitus type     0.008*   
Type1 4 −0.685(−1.390,0.019) 0.057   89.3% 0.000*
Type2 10 −0.341(− 0.517,-0.165) 0.000*   73.2% 0.000*
Type 1 and 2 4 −0.101(− 0.368,0.185) 0.491   79.9% 0.002*
area     0.823   
Europe 7 −0.501(−0.910,-0.092) 0.016*   92.6% 0.000*
Asia 8 −0.214(− 0.366,-0.061) 0.006*   63.0% 0.008*
American 3 −0.382(− 0.711,-0.053) 0.023*   0.0% 0.724
Study design     0.717   
Cross-sectional study 16 −0.391(−0.579,-0.203) 0.000*   84.9% 0.000*
Case-control study 2 −0.027(− 0.946,0.892) 0.95   91.5% 0.001*
Sample size     0.285   
< 200 10 −0.202(−0.379,-0.025) 0.026*   51.6% 0.029*
> 200 8 −0.494(− 0.793,-0.195) 0.001*   92.2% 0.000*
Publication year     0.842   
< 2010 8 −0.191(−0.401, 0.019) 0.075*   54.4% 0.032*
> 2010 10 −0.450(− 0.710,-0.191) 0.001*   90.6% 0.000*
Measurement tool     0.438   
Contact 12 −0.423(−0.642,-0.203) 0.000*   88.7% 0.000*
noncontact 6 −0.158(− 0.465,0.149) 0.312   61.5% 0.024*
  1. * mean statistical difference
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