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Table 2 Primary and secondary outcomes by allocated study arm and time point

From: Effect of a tailored leaflet to promote diabetic retinopathy screening among young adults with type 2 diabetes: a randomised controlled trial

 Time pointInterventionControl
Primary outcome: Unengaged participants n = 8n = 12
Retinal screening uptake since baselineBaseline00
4 weeks53
Secondary outcomes#:All participantsn = 43n = 51
Knowledge of: Diabetes/vision link (range 0–2)Baseline1.97 (.17)1.96 (.21)
4 weeks1.97 (.17)1.98 (.15)
Change0.00 (0.24)0.02 (0.15)
 Diabetic retinopathy (DR) (range 0–11)Baseline6.43 (2.38)6.78 (2.00)
4 weeks7.64 (1.97)b*6.86 (2.10)
Change1.21 (2.58)a*0.08 (2.07)
 Retinal screening (range 0–3)Baseline1.45 (.55)1.42 (.70)
4 weeks1.70 (.72)b*1.72 (.70)b*
Change0.25 (0.78)0.30 (0.68)
Attitudes: Retinal screening (range 11–55)Baseline46.29 (4.99)46.28 (6.17)
4 weeks46.61 (5.70)45.85 (5.4)
Change0.32 (4.36)−0.43 (4.14)
 Risk perception (range 4–28)Baseline13.49 (4.24)12.30 (4.08)
4 weeks13.64 (3.91)12.17 (3.57)
Change0.15 (3.18)−0.13 (3.35)
 Anticipated regret (range 6–42)Baseline24.62 (5.96)24.79 (5.55)
4 weeks30.67 (5.85)b*29.40 (7.16)b*
Change6.05 (5.53)4.62 (5.75)
Normative beliefs (range 2–14)Baseline13.26 (2.28)13.43 (1.44)
4 weeks13.10 (2.34)13.02 (2.66)
Change−0.15 (2.38)−0.40 (2.21)
Intention (range 3–21)Baseline18.51 (4.61)18.72 (5.22)
4 weeks18.46 (4.01)18.83 (4.36)
Change−0.05 (4.38)0.11 (2.12)
Behavioural skills: Perceived control (range 6–30)Baseline24.72 (4.10)24.50 (4.38)
4 weeks25.28 (4.24)24.11 (4.97)
Change0.56 (3.48)−0.39 (4.22)
 Overcoming barriers (range 5–25)Baseline20.21 (3.27)19.91 (4.08)
4 weeks20.08 (3.43)19.15 (4.17)
Change−0.13 (3.26)−0.77 (3.44)
Depressive symptoms (PHQ-2, range 0–6)Baseline2.38 (2.42)1.94 (1.96)
4 weeks2.05 (2.04)2.00 (2.01)
Change−0.33 (1.78)0.06 (1.68)
  1. Primary outcome: number of unengaged participants who reported receiving and reading leaflet
  2. Secondary outcomes (all participants): mean (standard deviation); change score = follow-up score minus baseline score (standard deviation); # Some missing data: range 3–10 dependent upon variable; a Significant between-condition difference in change scores; b Significant within-condition difference in change scores; *p < .05