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Table 1 Characteristics of the study participants aged 5–18 years old according to refractive errors

From: Factors associated with myopia in Korean children: Korea National Health and nutrition examination survey 2016–2017 (KNHANES VII)

 Non-myopia (−0.50 < SE)Low myopia (−6.0 < SE ≤ -0.5)High myopia (SE ≤ -6.0)TotalP-value
Number34057568983 
Refractive errors (D)
 Mean (SD)0.32 (0.85)−2.48 (1.60)−7.19 (0.97)−1.84 (2.38) 
 Median (IQR)0.13 (−0.13, 0.5)−2.13 (−3.88, − 1.00)−7.06 (− 7.63, −6.44)−1.13 (− 3.38, − 0.13) 
Age (years)    <.001*
 Mean (SD)9.39 (0.31)13.02 (0.18)15.40 (0.30)12.16 (0.19) 
 Median (IQR)7.71 (5.65, 11.30)13.11 (10.00, 15.40)15.36 (13.31, 16.65)12.18 (8.20, 15.17) 
Gender, n (%)    0.752a
 Male171 (50.29)301 (52.35)33 (48.53)505 (51.37) 
 Female169 (49.71)274 (47.65)35 (51.47)478 (48.63) 
BMI (kg/m2)    <.001*
 Mean (SD)17.76 (0.28)20.01 (0.22)22.58 (0.61)19.57 (0.81) 
 Median (IQR)16.83 (15.17, 19.53)19.40 (17.20, 22.41)21.80 (19.56, 24.72)18.90 (16.56, 21.97) 
Parental myopia, n (%)    0.016a
 Yes210 (61.77)421 (73.22)56 (82.35)687 (69.89) 
  Father75 (35.71)120 (28.50)20 (35.71)215 (31.30) 
  Mother75 (35.71)143 (33.97)16 (28.57)234 (34.06) 
  Both60 (28.57)158 (37.53)20 (35.71)238 (34.64) 
 No130 (38.2)154 (26.78)12 (17.65)296 (30.11) 
Near work, n (%)    0.033a
  ≤ 1 h/D60 (17.65)50 (8.70)4 (5.88)114 (11.60) 
 1–2 h/D139 (40.88)164 (28.52)17 (25.00)320 (32.55) 
 3 h/D68 (20.00)133 (23.13)12 (17.65)213 (21.67) 
 4 h/D ≤73 (21.47)228 (39.65)35 (51.47)336 (34.18) 
Household income    0.247a
 1 (Lowest)28 (8.24)50 (8.70)8 (11.76)86 (8.75) 
 297 (28.53)129 (22.43)12 (17.65)238 (24.21) 
 399 (29.12)197 (34.26)20 (29.41)316 (32.15) 
 4 (Highest)116 (34.12)199 (34.61)28 (41.18)343 (34.89) 
Accompanying disease, n (%)
 Atopic dermatitis56 (16.47)94 (16.35)6 (8.82)156 (15.87)0.056a
 Allergic rhinitis86 (25.29)168 (29.22)24 (35.29)278 (28.28)0.250a
 Asthma10 (2.94)29 (5.04)3 (4.41)42 (4.27)0.670a
 Sinusitis20 (5.88)34 (5.91)7 (10.29)61 (6.21)0.154a
 Otitis media86 (25.29)149 (25.91)12 (17.65)247 (25.13)0.492a
 ADHD4 (1.18)3 (0.52)0 (0.00)7 (0.71)-a
  1. All data are expressed as n (%) for categorical variables or mean (SD), median (IQR) for continuous variables
  2. SE spherical equivalent; D diopters; SD standard deviation; IQR interquartile range; BMI body max index; ADHD attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder
  3. aRao-Scott Chi-squre
  4. *P-values are calculated using the ANOVA