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Table 1 Participant characteristics and predictors of ocular complications among children with nephrotic syndrome at Mulago hospital

From: Prevalence and predictors of ocular complications among children undergoing nephrotic syndrome treatment in a resource-limited setting

Characteristic Total Proportion(%) Ocular complications Crude RR P-value Adjusted RR(95% CI) P-Value
No (n, %) Yes (n, %)
Current age in years
 mean ± SD 10 ± 4        
  1–5 17 17 8 (47.1) 9 (52.9) 1   1  
  6–10 42 42 10 (23.8) 32 (76.2) 1.44 0.138 1.44 (0.89,2.33)  
   > 10 41 41 2 (4.9) 39 (95.1) 1.8 0.012 1.37 (1.14,1.64) 0.001*
Sex
 Female 52 52 13 (25.0) 39 (75.0) 1    
 Male 48 48 7 (14.6) 41 (85.4) 1.14 0.195   
Residence
 Rural 34 34 6 (17.7) 28 (82.3) 1    
 Semi-urban 32 32 8 (25.0) 24 (75.0) 0.91 0.472   
 Urban 34 34 6 (17.7) 28 (82.3) 1.01 0.999   
Education
 Pre-school 21 21 9 (42.9) 12 (57.1) 1    
 Primary 79 79 11 (13.9) 68 (86.1) 1.51 0.003   
Weight at diagnosis
  < 20 36 36 10 (27.8) 26 (72.2) 1    
 20–29 34 34 7 (20.6) 27 (79.4) 1.1 0.485   
  ≥ 30 30 30 3 (10.0) 27 (90.0) 1.25 0.068   
HIV Status
 Negative 17 17 3 (17.7) 14 (82.3) 1    
 Positive 1 1 0 1 (100) 1.21 0.085   
 Unknown 82 82 17 (20.7) 65 (79.3) 0.96 0.762   
Current diagnosis
 In remission 24 24 6 (25.0) 18 (75.0) 1    
 NS 62 62 13 (21.0) 49 (79.0) 1.05 0.699   
 SDNS 14 14 1 (7.1) 13 (92.9) 1.24 0.127   
Hypertension
 No 84 84 18 (21.4) 66 (78.6) 1    
 Yes 16 16 2 (12.5) 14 (87.5) 1.11 0.332   
Medication
 Combination 19 19 3 (15.8) 16 (84.2) 1    
 Only prednisolone 81 81 17 (21.0) 64 (79.0) 0.94 0.58   
Use of traditional eye medicine
 No 97 97 19 (19.6) 78 (80.4) 1    
 Yes 3 3 1 (33.3) 2 (66.7) 0.83 0.65   
Number of days on treatment
  < 100 20 20 6 (30.0) 14 (70.0) 1    
 100–199 22 22 5 (22.7) 17 (77.3) 1.1 0.598   
  ≥ 200 58 58 9 (15.5) 49 (84.5) 1.21 0.233   
Average daily dose of Prednisolone
  < 15 mg 22 22 3 (13.6) 19 (86.4) 1    
 15-30 mg 58 58 14 (24.1) 44 (75.9) 0.88 0.252   
  > 30 mg 20 20 3 (15.0) 17 (85.0) 0.98 0.999   
Cumulative dose per square meter
  < 5000 61 61 15 (24.6) 46 (75.4) 1    
 5000–10,000 27 2 3 (11.1) 24 (88.9) 1.18 0.101   
  > 10,000 12 12 2 (16.7) 10 (83.3) 1.11 0.503   
Average daily dose of prednisolone per kg weight
  < 1 57 57 10 (17.5) 47 (82.5) 1    
 1–1.5 30 30 6 (20.0) 24 (80.0) 0.97 0.784   
  > 1.5 13 13 4 (30.8) 9 (69.2) 0.84 0.372   
Number of relapses
 Infrequent relapse 99 99 20 (20.2) 79 (79.8) 1    
 Frequent relapse 1 1 0 1 (100) 1.25 < 0.001   
  1. Table 1 shows the characteristics and predictors of ocular complications among children with nephrotic syndrome at mulago national referral hospital
  2. SD Standard deviation, HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus, kg Kilogram, NS Nephrotic syndrome, SDNS Steroid dependent nephrotic syndrome
  3. acombination = prednisolone + one or more of; cyclophosphamide, mycophenolate mofetil, methotrexate
  4. * P < 0.2 at bivariate
  5. P < 0.005 at multivariate.
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