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Table 3 Comparison of categorical distribution of visual acuity at 3-month follow-up with various risk factors

From: Factors affecting final functional outcomes in open‐globe injuries and use of ocular trauma score as a predictive tool in Nepalese population

Parameters VA at 3 months NPL PL/ HM 1/60–5/60 6/60 − 6/15 >= 6/12 Total p value
No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%)
VA at presentation NPL 8(57.1) 3(21.4) 1(7.1) 2(14.3) 0(0) 14(100) < 0.001a
PL/ HM 2(5.7) 11(31.4) 11(31.4) 6(17.1) 5(14.3) 35(100)
1/60–5/60 0(0) 0(0) 0(0) 5(55.6) 4(44.4) 9(100)
6/60–6/15 0(0) 0(0) 0(0) 2(40) 3(60) 5(100)
>= 6/12 0(0) 0(0) 0(0) 1(10) 9(90) 10(100)
Total 10(13.7) 14(19.2) 12(16.4) 16(21.9) 21(28.8) 73(100)
Zones of injury Zone I 5(13.5) 3(8.1) 3(8.1) 10(27) 16(43.2) 37(100) 0.001b
Zone II 0(0) 7(35) 5(25) 5(25) 3(15) 20(100)
Zone III 5(31.3) 4(25) 4(25) 1(6.3) 2(12.5) 16(100)
Total 10(13.7) 14(19.2) 12(16.4) 16(21.9) 21(28.8) 73(100)
Ruptured globes Present 4(44.4) 4(44.4) 1(11.1) 0(0) 0(0) 9(100) 0.001b
Absent 6(9.4) 10(15.6) 11(17.2) 16(25) 21(32.8) 64(100)
Total 10(13.7) 14(19.2) 12(16.4) 16(21.9) 21(28.8) 73(100)
Endophthalmitis Present 6(66.7) 1(11.1) 1(11.1) 1(11.1) 0(0) 9(100) 0.001b
Absent 4(6.3) 13(20.3) 11(17.2) 15(23.4) 21(32.8) 64(100)
Total 10(13.7) 14(19.2) 12(16.4) 16(21.9) 21(28.8) 73(100)
Intra vitreal injections Yes 8 (16) 12 (24) 9 (18) 13 (26) 8 (16) 50 (100) 0.013b
No 2 (8.7) 2 (8.7) 3 (13) 3 (13) 13 (56.5) 23 (100)
Total 10 (13.7) 14 (19.2) 12 (16.4) 16 (21.9) 21 (28.8) 73 (100)
Time to presentation <6 hours 0 (0) 5 (16.7) 6 (20) 4 (13.3) 15 (50) 30 (100) 0.001b
6–24 hours 3 (13) 4 (17.4) 4 (17.4) 9 (39.1) 3 (13) 23 (100)
> 2 days 7 (36.84) 25 (26.31) 2 (10.52) 2 (10.52) 3 (15.78) 19 (100)
Total 10 (13.7) 14 (19.2) 12 (16.4) 16 (21.9) 21 (28.8) 73 (100)
  1. VA Visual acuity, NPL No light perception, LP Light perception, HM Hand movements
  2. aMcnemar’s chi- squared test
  3. bFisher’s exact test
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