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Table 4 Orthoptic measurements between treatment group and observation group after 12 months

From: A randomized trial evaluating efficacy of overminus lenses combined with prism in the children with intermittent exotropia

  Overminus and prism n = 28 Observation n = 29
n % n %
Refractive error (SE, D)
  + 4.00 to <+ 5.00 1 3.6 2 6.9
  + 3.00 to <+ 4.00 2 7.1 3 10.3
  + 2.00 to <+ 3.00 4 14.3 7 24.1
  + 1.00 to <+ 2.00 10 35.7 7 24.1
 0 to <+ 1.00 10 35.7 10 34.5
 -1.00 to<0 1 3.6 0 0.0
 Mean (SD) 1.43 ± 1.12 1.42 ± 1.25
 Range −0.25 to + 4.5 + 0.25 to + 4.25
 Difference in means (95% CI) 0.01 (−0.61 to 0.62)
 Change between baseline and 12 months p = 0.278 p = 0.378
Exotropia control
 0 to 3 20 71.4 2 6.9
 4 to 6 6 21.4 19 65.5
 7 to 9 2 7.1 8 27.6
 Mean (SD) 1.75 ± 1.18 5.72 ± 1.28
 Range 3 to 8 3 to 8
 Difference in means (95% CI) −3.97 (−4.63 to −3.33)
 Change between baseline and 12 months p<0.001 p = 0.546
Exodeviation by PACT at distance
 No exodeviation (orthophoria) 0 0.0 0 0.0
 1 to 9 0 0.0 0 0.0
 10 to 14 6 21.4 4 13.8
 16 to 18 3 10.7 11 37.9
 20 to 25 11 39.3 11 37.9
 30 to 35 8 28.6 3 10.3
 40 to 45 0 0.0 8 28.6
 Mean (SD) 22.46 ± 7.61 27.48 ± 7.24
 Range 12 to 35 18 to 45
 Difference in means (95% CI) −5.02 (−8.96 to −1.08)
 Change between baseline and 12 months p<0.001 p = 0.177
Exodeviation by PACT at near
 No exodeviation (orthophoria) 0 0.0 0 0.0
 1 to 9 4 14.3 0 0.0
 10 to 14 6 21.4 6 20.7
 16 to 18 8 28.6 11 37.9
 20 to 25 8 28.6 10 34.5
 30 to 35 2 7.1 2 6.9
 40 to 45 0 0.0 0 0.0
 Mean (SD) 16.25 ± 7.03 26.72 ± 7.41
 Range 8 to 30 16 to 40
 Difference in means (95% CI) −10.47 (−14.31 to −6.64)
 Change between baseline and 12 months p<0.001 p = 0.127
Preschool Randot near stereoacuity, arcsec (log arcsec)
 40″ (1.6 log arcsec) 7 25 3 10.3
 60″ (1.78 log arcsec) 8 28.6 7 24.1
 100″ (2.0 log arcsec) 8 28.6 6 20.7
 200″ (2.3 log arcsec) 4 14.3 6 20.7
 400″ (2.6 log arcsec) 1 3.6 3 10.3
 800″ (2.9 log arcsec) 0 0.0 4 13.8
 Nil (3.1 log arcsec) 0 0.0 0 0.0
 Mean (SD) (log arcsec) 1 .91 ± 0.26   2.16 ± 0.42  
 Range (log arcsec) 1.6 to 2.6   1.6 to 2.9  
 Difference in means (95% CI) −0.25 (−0.44 to −0.06)
 Change between baseline and 12 months p<0.001 p = 0.265
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