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Table 1 Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of the participants

From: Association between self-care agency and depression and anxiety in patients with diabetic retinopathy

Variable N (%)
N = 105
Categorical variables
 Gender
  Female 54 (51.4)
  Male 51 (48.6)
 Education
   < 9 y 67 (63.8)
   ≥ 9 y 38 (36.2)
 Marital status
  Married 97 (92.4)
  Others 8 (7.6)
 Residence
  Urban 50 (47.6)
  Rural 55 (52.4)
 History of smoking
  Y 40 (38.1)
  N 65 (61.9)
 History of hypertension
  Y 71 (67.6)
  N 34 (32.4)
 Family history of DM
  Y 47 (44.8)
  N 58 (55.2)
 Level of VI*
  Blindness 25 (23.8)
  Severe VI 8 (7.6)
  Moderate VI 27 (25.7)
  Mild VI 10 (9.5)
  No VI 35 (33.3)
Continuous variables
 Age, m (sd), y 56.7 (11.6)
 HbA1c, m (IQR), % 7.4 (6.5–8.6)
 BP, m (sd), mmHg
  Systolic 142.0 (17.3)
  Diastolic 82.8 (9.8)
 Duration of DM, m (IQR), y 10.0 (5.0–15.0)
 Duration of VI, m (IQR), m 7.0 (2.0–15.0)
 HADS, m (sd) 14.9 (6.9)
 HADS-A, m (sd) 7.74 (3.82)
 HADS-D, m (sd) 7.14 (3.84)
 ESCA, m (sd) 103.1 (13.7)
  Self-concept, m (IQR) 19.0 (17.0–21.5)
  Self-nursing responsibility, m (IQR) 14.0 (12.0–16.0)
  Self-care skills, m (IQR) 29.0 (26.0–31.0)
  Health knowledge level, m (sd) 40.8 (6.8)
  1. DM: diabetes mellitus; y: years; m (sd): mean (standardized deviation); m (IQR): median (interquartile range); HbA1c: hemoglobin A1c; BP: blood pressure; DM: diabetes mellitus; HADS-D: hospital anxiety and depression scale - depression; HADS-A: hospital anxiety and depression scale – anxiety; ESCA: the exercise of self-care agency scale. * classification of VI is based on the International Classification of Diseases 11 classification system