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Table 2 Association between the sociodemographic and clinical variables and depression and anxiety

From: Association between self-care agency and depression and anxiety in patients with diabetic retinopathy

Variable Depression Anxiety
  Mean (SD) P Mean (SD) P
Gender
 Female 7.2 (4.0) 0.95 8.4 (3.9) 0.08
 Male 7.1 (3.7)   7.1 (3.6)  
Education
  < 9 y 7.5 (3.8) 0.24 8.1 (4.2) 0.16
  ≥ 9 y 6.6 (3.8)   7.1 (3.0)  
Marital status
 Married 7.1 (3.9) 0.79 7.9 (3.9) 0.25
 Others 7.5 (2.8)   6.3 (3.0)  
Residence
 Urban 5.7 (3.3) 0.00* 6.9 (2.9) 0.02*
 Rural 8.4 (3.9)   8.5 (4.4)  
History of smoking
 Y 7.3 (4.1) 0.74 7.2 (3.7) 0.28
 N 7.1 (3.7)   8.1 (3.9)  
History of hypertension
 Y 7.9 (3.7) 0.00* 8.1 (3.5) 0.17
 N 5.6 (3.7)   7.0 (4.3)  
Family history of DM
 Y 7.5 (3.7) 0.38 7.5 (3.7) 0.51
 N 6.8 (3.9)   8.0 (3.9)  
VI
 Mild or no VI 5.2 (2.4) 0.04* 6.3 (2.2) 0.29
 Moderate or severer VI 7.5 (3.6)   7.8 (3.9)  
Continuous variables
 Age -0.14a 0.16 -0.01a 0.95
 HbA1c -0.02b 0.84 −0.07 b 0.49
 BP
  Systolic 0.00 a 0.99 −0.18 a 0.07
  Diastolic 0.02 a 0.87 0.24 a 0.01*
 Duration of DM −0.05 b 0.60 0.03 b 0.75
 Duration of VI 0.06 b 0.56 −0.05 b 0.59
 ESCA total score −0.31 a 0.00* −0.16 a 0.11
  Self-concept −0.23 b 0.02* −0.11 b 0.26
  Self-nursing responsibility −0.17 b 0.09 −0.08 b 0.42
  Self-care skills −0.40 b 0.00* −0.29 b 0.00*
  Health knowledge level −0.28 a 0.00* −0.11 a 0.27
  1. a Pearson correlation; b Spearman correlation; * P < 0.05; y: year; HbA1c: hemoglobin A1c; BP: blood pressure; DM: diabetes mellitus; HADS-D: hospital anxiety and depression scale - depression; HADS-A: hospital anxiety and depression scale – anxiety; ESCA: the exercise of self-care agency scale