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Table 4 Comparison of reported prevalence of RE in selected population-based studies nationally and internationally

From: Prevalence and risk factors of refractive error in Qinghai, China: a cross-sectional study in Han and Tibetan adults in Xining and surrounding areas

Studies n Population Age (y) Myopia (%) Myopia SE High myopia (%) High myopia SE Hyperopia (%) Hyperopia SE
CNHS Inner Mongolia Study, 2019 [19] 2090 Chinese (Han/Mongolian) 40–80 29.4 <−0.5D 3.6 <−6D 28.4 > 0.5D
CNHS Yunnan Study, 2019 [20] 1626 Chinese (Han/Yi) 40–80 26.4 <− 0.5D 2.6 <−6D 19.9 > 0.5D
Handan Eye Study, 2009 [21] 6491 Chinese 30–86 26.7 <−0.5D 1.8% <−5D 15.9 > 0.5D
Beijing Eye Study, 2006 [18] 4319 Chinese 40–90 22.9 <−0.5D 2.6 <−6D NR NR
Liwan Eye Study, 2009 [11] 1269 Chinese ≥50 32.3 <−0.5D 5.0 <−5D 40.0 > 0.5D
Shihpai Eye Study, 2003 [22] 1361 Chinese ≥65 19.4 <−0.5D 2.4 <−6D 59.0 > 0.5D
Shanghai Eye Study, 2017 [23] 6099 Chinese ≥50 22.8 <−0.5D 4.6 <−6D 48.5 > 0.5D
Suzhou Rural Eye Study, 2017 [24] 4795 Chinese ≥60 23.5 <−0.5D 2.1 <−6D NR NR
Rural Southern Harbin Eye Study, 2009 [10] 4979 Chinese ≥50 9.5 <−0.5D NR NR 8.9 > 0.5D
Tanjong Pagar Study, 2000 [25] 1232 Chinese (Singapore) 40–79 38.7 <−0.5D 9.1 <−5D 28.4 > 0.5D
Singapore Longitudinal Aging Study, 2011 [26] 1727 Chinese (Singapore) 55–85 30.8 ≤ − 0.5D NR NR 41.1 ≥1D
Chinese American Eye Study, 2017 [27] 4144 Chinese (American) ≥50 35.1 <−0.5D 7.4 <−5D 40.2 > 0.5D
Tajimi Study, 2008 [28] 3021 Japanese ≥40 41.8 <−0.5D 8.2 <−5D 27.9 > 0.5D
Hisayama Study, 2019 [4] 2936 Japanese ≥40 45.8 <−0.5D 9.5 <−5D NR NR
Namil Rural Study, 2013 [29] 1215 Korean ≥40 20.5 <−0.5D 1.0 <−6D 41.8 > 0.5D
Singapore Malay Eye Study, 2008 [30] 2974 Malay (Singapore) 40–79 26.2 <−0.5D 3.9 <−5D 27.4 > 0.5D
Singapore Indian Eye Study, 2011 [31] 2805 Indian (Singapore) 40–79 28.0 <−0.5D 4.1 <−5D 35.9 > 0.5D
Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study, 2009 [32] 3642 Indian 40–92 34.6 <−0.5D 4.5 <−5D 18.4 > 0.5D
Indian Study of Age-related Eye Disease, 2018 [33] 3267 Indian ≥40 35.6 ≤ − 0.75D 2.0 ≤ − 6D 30.3 ≥0.5D
Meiktila eye study, 2008 [34] 1863 Burmese ≥40 42.7 <−1D 6.5 <−6D 15.0 >1D
Six Villages in Sumatra, 2002 [35] 358 Indonesian ≥40 34.1 ≤ − 0.5D NR NR 32.1 ≥0.5D
Shahroud Eye Cohort Study, 2012 [36] 4864 Iranian 40–64 30.2 ≤ − 0.5D 1.9 <−6D 35.6 > 0.5D
Mongolian Eye Study, 2004 [37] 1617 Mongolian ≥40 17.2 <−0.5D NR NR 49.9 > 0.5D
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008 [38] 7357 American ≥40 31.0 ≤ − 1D 6.0 ≤ − 5D 5.3 ≥3D
Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, 2013 [39] 4430 American 45–84 25.1 ≤ − 1D 4.6 ≤ − 5D 38.2 ≥1D
Los Angeles Latino Eye Study, 2006 [40] 5927 Latinos (American) ≥40 16.8 ≤ − 1D 2.4 ≤ − 5D NR NR
Barbados Eye Study, 1999 [41] 4709 Barbados-born Black adults 40–84 21.9 <−0.5D NR NR 46.9 > 0.5D
Victoria Visual Impairment Project, 1999 [42] 4532 Australian 40–98 17.0 <−0.5D 2.1 <−5D 37.0 > 0.5D
  1. NR not reported