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Table 1 Baseline demographics of infants with poor or lacking eye contact referred to the Department of Ophthalmology, Rigshospitalet

From: Causes of poor eye contact in infants: a population-based study

  Normal vision at first consultation Group 1a – idiopathic infantile nystagmus Group 1b – isolated delayed visual maturation Group 2 – neurodevelopmental delay Group 3 – structural ocular abnormality
Number of infants (boys/girls) 14 (7/7) 4 (2/2) 24 (14/10) 36 (19/17) 21 (14/7)
Gestational age (days, median (range))a 281 (243-292) 271 (273-291) 271 (197-292) 275 (203-297) 280 (204-294)
Very preterm (28 – 31 GA, n (%)) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 2 (8.3%) 1 (2.8%) 1 (5.0%)
Moderate to late preterm (32 - 37 GA, n (%)) 3 (21.4%) 0 (0%) 6 (25.0%) 8 (22.2%) 2 (10.0%)
Born at term (>  38 GA, n (%)) 11 (78.6%) 4 (100.0%) 16 (66.7%) 27 (75.0%) 17 (81.0%)
Pregnancy, eventful/total (n) 4/14 0/4 8/24 20/36 4/21
Birth, eventful/total (n) 3/14 1/4 7/24 19/36 6/21
Age at referral (weeks), median (range) 12.4 (6.1-32.1) 10.0 (9.1-10.4) 12.0 (5.6-34.7) 20.4 (0.3-45.0) 14.7 (4.9-34.7)
Follow-up (months), median (range) 0 (0-5.5) 14.4 (9.6-39.0) 5.4 (2.0-20.2) 17.0 (2.0-35.9) 16.5 (1.0-41.1)
Referring party, n (%)
Pediatrician 4 (28.6%) 2 (50.0%) 14 (58.3%) 30 (83.3%) 10 (47.6%)
Centre for rare diseases 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 4 (11.1%) 2 (9.5%)
Ophthalmologist 5 (35.7%) 2 (50.0%) 5 (20.8%) 2 (5.6%) 4 (19.0%)
General practitioner 5 (35.7%) 0 (0%) 5 (20.8%) 0 (0%) 5 (23.8%)
Diagnostic work-up
Last VA (logMAR), median (range)b 0.88 (1.84-0.0) 0.73 (1.68-0.22) 0.62 (1.5-0.0) 0.62 (1.3-0.10) 0.62 (NLP-0.10)
Refraction (Diopter), median (range)c 2.8 (−0.4-3.9) 2.8 (−0.4-4.4) 1.9 (−1.3-4.4) 1.6 (−7.1-8.4) 2.4 (−6.8-10.0)
Brain imaging, n/total (%)d 4/14 (28.6%) 3/4 (75.0%) 6/24 (25.0%) 30/36 (83.3%) 9/21 (42.9%)
MRI, n/total (%) 2/14 (14.3%) 3/4 (75.0%) 2/24 (8.3%) 27/36 (75.0%) 8/21 (38.1%)
CT, n/total (%) 1/14 (7.1%) 0/4 (0%) 0/24 (0%) 6/36 (16.7%) 0/21 (0%)
US, n/total (%) 2/14 (14.3%) 0/4 (0%) 4/24 (16.7%) 11/36 (30.6%) 2/21 (9.5%)
Abnormal brain imaging, n/total (%) 2/4 (50.0%) 0/3 (0%) 2/6 (33.3%) 26/30 (86.7%) 5/9 (55.5%)
Urinary metabolic screen, n/total (%) 1/14 (7.1%) 0/4 (0%) 3/24 (12.5%) 22/36 (61.1%) 8/21 (38.1%)
Genetic testing, n/total (%) 1/14 (7.1%) 3/4 (75.0%) 3/24 (12.5%) 26/36 (75.0%) 12/21 (57.1%)
Genetic diagnosis, n/total (%) 0/1 (0%) 0/3 (0%) 0/3 (0%) 16/26 (61.5%) 7/12 (58.3%)
Ocular electrophysiology, n/total (%) 0/14 (0%) 4/4 (100%) 0/24 (0%) 5/36 (13.9%) 7/21 (33.3%)
  1. aInformation about gestational age at birth was unavailable for one infant in Group 3
  2. bMethods of measurement were Teller Acuity Cards (n = 53), Cardiff Pictures (n = 17), Kay Pictures (n = 5), Snellen Acuity Chart (n = 4) and unknown (n = 6). Visual acuity was measured without correction (n = 40), with correction (n = 16) and unspecified (n = 29). Visual acuity measurements were unavailable for four infants presenting with normal visual function, one infant with delayed visual maturation and nine infants in Group 3
  3. cRefraction is presented as spherical equivalent for right eyes
  4. dFor brain imaging, the subtotals of infants undergoing MRI, CT and US do not always add up to the total number of infants in each group as one infant could undergo more than one type of brain imaging
  5. CT computer tomography, ERG electroretinogram, GA gestational age in weeks, logMAR logarithm to the minimal angle of resolution, MRI magnetic resonance imaging, NGS next generation sequencing, NLP no light perception, US ultrasound, VA visual acuity, VEP visually evoked potential