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Table 2 Comparison of tear compositions before (baseline) and after AE

From: Effects of aerobic exercise on tear secretion and tear film stability in dry eye patients

  Group Time P value
Baseline 0 min 30 min   Group ×Time Group main effect Time main effect
Lactoferrin
(μg/ml)
1 110.08 ± 16.02 113.51 ± 12.28 114.69 ± 13.04 1 and 2 0.840 0.656 0.068
2 111.63 ± 15.14 115.72 ± 15.46 114.88 ± 13.06
2 and 3 0.535 0.038 0.706
3 120.04 ± 16.92 120.24 ± 16.50 118.46 ± 16.26
MMP-9
(μg/L)
1 1071.16 ± 166.35 1058.28 ± 170.00 1059.03 ± 172.75 1 and 2 0.156 0.165 0.072
2 1065.60 ± 157.43 984.20 ± 151.56 999.36 ± 171.43
2 and 3 0.652 0.041 0.097
3 976.62 ± 178.87 940.23 ± 190.27 959.15 ± 171.21
IL-6
(ng/L)
1 19.63 ± 2.05 19.49 ± 1.87 19.51 ± 2.02 1 and 2 0.221 0.185 0.107
2 19.52 ± 2.01 18.50 ± 1.96 18.96 ± 2.16
2 and 3 0.286 0.069 0.377
3 18.42 ± 1.82 18.44 ± 2.07 18.60 ± 2.30
8-OHdG (ng/L) 1 105.17 ± 10.77 105.67 ± 10.95 105.62 ± 11.24 1 and 2 0.016 / /
2 105.43 ± 10.74 98.00 ± 11.74ab 98.23 ± 13.03ab
2 and 3 0.142 0.229 0.031
3 99.32 ± 12.84 95.65 ± 11.08 100.16 ± 12.20
OAHFA
(pg/ml)
1 367.21 ± 40.58 366.66 ± 35.39 371.12 ± 32.89 1 and 2 0.704 0.842 0.904
2 365.13 ± 43.50 369.71 ± 38.53 365.75 ± 36.82
2 and 3 0.918 0.879 0.792
3 362.77 ± 35.43 366.95 ± 40.08 368.28 ± 42.66
MUC5AC
(μg/L)
1 92.65 ± 8.10 93.50 ± 8.21 93.83 ± 8.22 1 and 2 0.945 0.741 0.736
2 93.54 ± 8.17 93.65 ± 9.24 94.34 ± 8.24
2 and 3 0.412 0.019 0.492
3 98.89 ± 9.81 95.35 ± 7.78 96.26 ± 8.13
  1. Group 1: Dry eye without AE, Group 2: Dry eye with AE, Group 3: Pre-clinical dry eye with AE
  2. a There was a significant difference compared with baseline (P < 0.05)
  3. b There was a significant difference compared with Group 1 (P < 0.05)
  4. MMP-9 matrix metalloproteinase-9, 8-OHdG 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine, OAHFA (O-acyl)-ω-hydroxy fatty acids, MUC5AC Mucin 5 subtype AC