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Table 3 Comparison of signs associated with dry eye before (baseline) and after AE

From: Effects of aerobic exercise on tear secretion and tear film stability in dry eye patients

  Group Time P value
Baseline 10 min 20 min 40 min   Group × Time Group main effect Time main effect
TMH (mm) 1 0.31 ± 0.07 0.30 ± 0.09 0.30 ± 0.07 0.30 ± 0.06 1 and 2 0.984 0.784 0.630
2 0.32 ± 0.13 0.31 ± 0.11 0.31 ± 0.13 0.30 ± 0.09
2 and 3 0.404 0.866 0.537
3 0.31 ± 0.09 0.30 ± 0.07 0.30 ± 0.09 0.32 ± 0.11
F-NIT
BUTF-NITBUT
(s)
1 5.52 ± 1.97 5.36 ± 1.68 5.44 ± 1.54 5.44 ± 1.35 1 and 2 <0.001 / /
2 5.44 ± 1.88c 10.80 ± 5.35ab 7.94 ± 3.88ab 7.87 ± 4.24ab
2 and 3 0.036 / /
3 10.16 ± 4.07 10.77 ± 5.66 9.50 ± 5.48 9.64 ± 5.05
A-NIT
BUTA-NITBUT
(s)
1 7.49 ± 2.36 7.91 ± 2.04 7.91 ± 2.18 7.83 ± 1.39 1 and 2 0.001 / /
2 7.73 ± 1.63c 12.94 ± 4.65ab 11.04 ± 4.41abc 10.34 ± 4.83abc
2 and 3 0.003 / /
3 14.37 ± 3.42 14.67 ± 5.56 13.70 ± 5.41 13.73 ± 5.48
LLT
(nm)
1 48.23 ± 16.66 50.33 ± 18.70 49.10 ± 15.10 46.17 ± 16.18 1 and 2 0.363 0.946 0.117
2 52.37 ± 22.05 48.27 ± 18.85 50.17 ± 17.55 45.23 ± 16.40
2 and 3 0.424 0.003 0.086
3 63.43 ± 20.71 56.93 ± 21.00 57.43 ± 18.17 59.27 ± 15.27
Number of incomplete blinks 1 4.33 ± 3.06 4.43 ± 3.57 4.17 ± 3.03 4.30 ± 3.41 1 and 2 0.033 / /
2 4.30 ± 3.41c 1.60 ± 1.45bcd 3.17 ± 2.25 3.47 ± 3.20c
2 and 3 <0.001 / /
3 2.77 ± 1.83 2.77 ± 2.03 2.80 ± 1.97 2.37 ± 1.99
Number of complete blinks 1 4.00 ± 2.95 4.57 ± 2.36 4.60 ± 1.96 4.50 ± 2.58 1 and 2 <0.001 / /
2 3.80 ± 2.83 7.90 ± 4.87bcd 4.93 ± 2.59 4.70 ± 2.77
2 and 3 <0.001 / /
3 4.33 ± 2.40 4.13 ± 2.91 3.87 ± 2.73 3.60 ± 2.14
Number of total blinks 1 8.33 ± 4.90 9.00 ± 4.22 8.77 ± 4.08 8.80 ± 4.56 1 and 2 0.690 0.754 0.353
2 8.10 ± 5.16 9.50 ± 5.22 8.10 ± 3.49 8.17 ± 4.50
2 and 3 0.325 0.035 0.106
3 7.10 ± 3.64 6.90 ± 3.88 6.67 ± 4.37 5.97 ± 3.32
PBR 1 0.52 ± 0.23 0.47 ± 0.22 0.45 ± 0.17 0.49 ± 0.25 1 and 2 0.002 / /
2 0.52 ± 0.23 0.18 ± 0.16bcd 0.37 ± 0.24 0.41 ± 0.29
2 and 3 0.008 / /
3 0.41 ± 0.24 0.40 ± 0.27 0.37 ± 0.24 0.37 ± 0.28
  1. Group 1: Dry eye without AE, Group 2: Dry eye with AE, Group 3: Pre-clinical dry eye with AE
  2. a There was a significant difference compared with baseline (P < 0.05)
  3. b There was a significant difference compared with Group 1 (P < 0.05)
  4. c There was a significant difference compared with Group 3 (P < 0.05)
  5. d There were significant differences compared with the other time point (P < 0.05)
  6. TMH tear meniscus height, F-NITBUT first non-invasive tear breakup time, A-NITBUT average non-invasive tear breakup time, LLT lipid layer thickness, PBR partial blink rate