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Pediatrics and Strabismus

This section will consider studies on all aspects of pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus, including prevention, diagnosis and management of strabismus ocular disease in children, as well as related molecular genetics, pathophysiology and epidemiology. The section particularly welcomes prospective clinical studies, especially randomized controlled trials.

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  1. Nephrotic syndrome is the most common glomerulopathy among children aged 2–18 years and high dose corticosteroids are the backbone of its management. Potentially blinding ocular complications often result from...

    Authors: Faith Nakubulwa, Rebecca Claire Lusobya, Anthony Batte, Bashir Ssuna, Damalie Nakanjako, Lydia Nakiyingi, Caroline Nalukenge, Francis Onen Sebabi, Ben Mulinde and Juliet Otiti-Sengeri

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2021 21:55

    Content type: Research article

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  2. The treatment efficacy of botulinum toxin bilateral medial rectus injections for acute acquired concomitant esotropia (AACE) in adult is not clear. We characterize the effects of botulinum toxin injection in t...

    Authors: Minghua Shi, Yuanxiang Zhou, Aijiao Qin, Jing Cheng and Hongxing Ren

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2021 21:9

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Choroidal ganglioneuroma is an extremely rare tumor, and there is little knowledge regarding its pathogenesis. We aimed to investigate the phenotypic and genetic alterations in one sporadic patient with a rare...

    Authors: Zhaoxin Jiang, Ting Zhang, Chonglin Chen, Limei Sun, Songshan Li and Xiaoyan Ding

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2020 20:487

    Content type: Research article

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  4. The effect and safety of atropine on delaying the progression of myopia has been extensively studied, but its optimal dose is still unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this meta-analysis is to systematically ev...

    Authors: Congling Zhao, Chunyan Cai, Qiang Ding and Hongbin Dai

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2020 20:478

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Structural changes of the choroid, such as choroidal thickening, have been indicated in amblyopic eyes with hyperopic anisometropia as compared to fellow or healthy eyes. The purpose of the present study was t...

    Authors: Syunsuke Araki, Atsushi Miki, Katsutoshi Goto, Tsutomu Yamashita, Tsuyoshi Yoneda, Atsushi Fujiwara, Kazuko Haruishi, Yoshiaki Ieki, Junichi Kiryu, Goro Maehara and Kiyoshi Yaoeda

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2020 20:472

    Content type: Research article

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  6. To examine the clinical features of acute acquired comitant esotropia (AACE) and to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of a single injection of botulinum toxin type A (BTXA) on binocular visual function (BVF).

    Authors: Luyao Tong, Xiaoning Yu, Xiajing Tang, Yidong Zhang, Sifan Zheng and Zhaohui Sun

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2020 20:464

    Content type: Research article

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  7. The Prevalence of myopia is increasing in China. This study aimed to explore the distribution of spherical equivalent (SE) and its association with age, body mass index (BMI), gender in a non-myopic Chinese ch...

    Authors: Xiyan Zhang, Yonglin Zhou, Jie Yang, Yan Wang, Wenyi Yang, Liuwei Gao, Yao Xiang and Fengyun Zhang

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2020 20:439

    Content type: Research article

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  8. In this case report, we present for the first time central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) and central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) as a complication of persistent hyaloid artery (PHA).

    Authors: Mirjana Bjeloš, Ana Križanović, Mladen Bušić and Biljana Kuzmanović Elabjer

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2020 20:434

    Content type: Case report

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  9. Few studies have evaluated the surgical outcome of superior oblique weakening procedures in patients with superior oblique overaction associated with exotropia or esotropia. This study aimed to evaluate the ou...

    Authors: Junwoo Chun and Seong-Joon Kim

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2020 20:420

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Ocular coloboma is an excavation of ocular structures that occurs due to abnormal fusion of the embryonic optic fissure. Further, cleft lip/palate (CL/P), a congenital midline abnormality, is caused by a defec...

    Authors: Yung Ju Yoo, Sang Beom Han, Hee Kyung Yang and Jeong-Min Hwang

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2020 20:418

    Content type: Case report

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  11. Congenital orbital teratoma is relatively rare, and few reports of prenatal ultrasound findings in such cases have been published.

    Authors: Xi Chen, Jiaxiang Yang, Guannan He, Chunlan Cheng, Chunguo Zhang, Hongli Wang, Lihong He, Zhirong Yang, Li Chen and Jing Zhao

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2020 20:415

    Content type: Case report

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  12. To date there have been few systematic attempts to establish the general prevalence of asthenopia in unselected populations of school-aged children. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether the inc...

    Authors: Barbara M. Junghans, Serap Azizoglu and Sheila G. Crewther

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2020 20:408

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Although nasolacrimal duct probing is the standard treatment for congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction (CNLDO) among children, the optimal timing of this procedure has been a topic of debate. The aim of the...

    Authors: Marta Świerczyńska, Ewelina Tobiczyk, Piotr Rodak, Dorota Barchanowska and Erita Filipek

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2020 20:403

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Optic nerve (ON) invasion is an important high-risk feature, and an indicator for neoadjuvant chemotherapy and prognosis. We aim through this study to correlate the detected-ON invasion by Magnetic resonance i...

    Authors: Mohammed M. Abusayf, Hind M. Alkatan, Sahar Elkhamary, Saleh A. Almesfer and Azza M. Y. Maktabi

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2020 20:386

    Content type: Research article

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  15. To calculate and evaluate the prevalence of reduced uncorrected distant visual acuity (UCDVA) in primary, middle and high schools in 6 districts of Changsha, Hunan, China.

    Authors: Menglian Liao, Zehuai Cai, Muhammad Ahmad Khan, Wenjie Miao, Ding Lin and Qiongyan Tang

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2020 20:347

    Content type: Research article

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  16. 22q11.2 duplication syndrome (Dup22q11.2) has reduced penetrance and variable expressivity. Those affected may have intellectual disabilities, dysmorphic facial features, and ocular alterations such as ptosis,...

    Authors: Claudia Valencia-Peña, Paula Jiménez-Sanchez, Wilmar Saldarriaga and César Payán-Gómez

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2020 20:333

    Content type: Case report

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  17. The purpose was to study the macular ganglion cell- inner plexiform layer (GC-IPL) thickness in healthy 6.5 year- old Swedish children using Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and to study topography symmetry ...

    Authors: Urszula Arnljots, Maria Nilsson, Ida Hed Myrberg, Ulrika Åden and Kerstin Hellgren

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2020 20:329

    Content type: Research article

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  18. To compare surgical outcomes and complications of three inferior oblique weakening procedures; Inferior Oblique Myectomy (IOM), Inferior Oblique combined Resection-Anterior Transposition (IORAT) and Inferior O...

    Authors: Mohamed F. Farid, Mohamed Anany and Marwa Abdelshafy

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2020 20:298

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Tibetan Plateau is a highland area with special geographical location, time zone, and ethnic composition. We herein report the rationale, methodology and baseline data of the school-based childhood cohort stud...

    Authors: Weiwei Chen, Jing Fu, Zhaojun Meng, Lei Li, Han Su, Wei Dai and Yao Yao

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2020 20:250

    Content type: Research article

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Ophthalmology 2020 20:314

  20. Intraocular medulloepithelioma is commonly treated with primary enucleation. Conservative treatment options include brachytherapy, local resection and/or cryotherapy in selected cases. We report for the first ...

    Authors: Christina Stathopoulos, Marie-Claire Gaillard, Julie Schneider and Francis L. Munier

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2020 20:239

    Content type: Case report

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  21. To detect significant factors associated with excessive postoperative exo-drift in young patients with intermittent exotropia who had undergone unilateral lateral rectus muscle recession and medial rectus musc...

    Authors: Shin Morisawa, Ichiro Hamasaki, Kiyo Shibata, Takehiro Shimizu, Reika Kono, Manabu Miyata, Takashi Furuse, Satoshi Hasebe, Hiroshi Ohtsuki, Yuki Morizane and Fumio Shiraga

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2020 20:216

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Many treatments are currently available for amblyopic patients; although, the comparative efficacy of these therapies is unclear. We conducted a systematic review and network meta-analysis (NMA) to establish t...

    Authors: Yonghong Li, Huan Sun, Xiaojuan Zhu, Yana Su, Tianqi Yu, Xinyu Wu, Xiaoqin Zhou and Li Jing

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2020 20:203

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Assessment of interobserver reproducibility and interocular symmetry using optical coherence tomography (OCT)–based measurements of the macular ganglion cell complex (GCC) in healthy children facilitates inter...

    Authors: Alicia Muñoz-Gallego, Javier De la Cruz, Martín Rodríguez-Salgado, José L. Torres-Peña, Javier Sambricio, Ana Ortueta-Olartecoechea and Pilar Tejada-Palacios

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2020 20:197

    Content type: Research article

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  24. China has been undergoing dramatic economic development, accompanied by increased education load on the young children. This study is to investigate the prevalence, type, severity, and associated risk factors ...

    Authors: Jianyong Wang, Qianqian Ellie Cheng, Xiaojin Fu, Ronghua Zhang, Jia Meng, Fang Gu, Juanjuan Li and Gui-shuang Ying

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2020 20:155

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Myopic eyes are longer than nonmyopic eyes and have thinner choroids. The purpose of present study was to investigate whether a thinner subfoveal choroid at 11 years of age predicted axial eye elongation and m...

    Authors: Mathias Hvidtfelt Hansen, Line Kessel, Xiao Qiang Li, Anne Mette Skovgaard, Michael Larsen and Inger Christine Munch

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2020 20:152

    Content type: Research article

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  26. The prevalence of myopia and associated risk factors among children in Chongqing has not yet been determined. This study investigated the prevalence of myopia and possible relationships between myopia and seve...

    Authors: Zhihao Xie, Yue Long, Jingxuan Wang, Qiaoqiao Li and Qiang Zhang

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2020 20:146

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Trachoma is a contagious infection of the eye. World Health Organization recommended three rounds of mass drug administration in districts where the prevalence of trachomatous follicular (TF) is ≥10% in childr...

    Authors: Gebremeskel Reda, Dejen Yemane and Aregawi Gebreyesus

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2020 20:144

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  28. Pupillary evaluation is a crucial element of physical exams. Noting size, reactivity, and consensual response is critical in assessing for optic nerve dysfunction. We aim to establish normative data for scotop...

    Authors: Sanket S. Shah, Hantamalala Ralay Ranaivo, Rebecca B. Mets-Halgrimson, Karen Rychlik and Sudhi P. Kurup

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2020 20:121

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Peters plus syndrome (PPS) is a combination of congenital Peters anomaly and systemic abnormalities. It is inherited most commonly in an autosomal recessive pattern with homozygous B3GLCT mutations. Ocular findin...

    Authors: Ye Elaine Wang, Dhariana Acon Ramirez, Ta Chen Chang and Audina Berrocal

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2020 20:118

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  30. Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) are common side-effects following strabismus surgery. The present study aimed to compare the effects of different doses of dexmedetomidine (DEX) on PONV incidence in pe...

    Authors: Shuangshuang Li, Tingjie Liu, Junming Xia, Jie Jia and Wenxian Li

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2020 20:86

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  31. The primary aim was to estimate the incidence of primary and secondary childhood glaucoma in Scotland over a 2-year period. The secondary aim was to gauge the confidence and experience of ophthalmologists in S...

    Authors: Daniel Beck, Martin Galea, Cheng Yi Loo, Conrad Schmoll, Frederick R. Burgess, Donald Montgomery and Andrew J. Tatham

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2020 20:76

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Primary objective of this review was to measure compliance with spectacle use in children with refractive errors. Secondary objective was to understand the reasons for non-compliance.

    Authors: Nonita Dhirar, Sankalp Dudeja, Mona Duggal, Parul Chawla Gupta, Nishant Jaiswal, Meenu Singh and Jagat Ram

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2020 20:71

    Content type: Research article

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