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Section edited by Hemant Khanna and Javier Zarranz-Ventura

This section considers articles on all aspects of the prevention, diagnosis and management of retinal diseases as well as related molecular and cellular biology, genetics and pathophysiology. The section particularly welcomes prospective clinical studies, especially randomized controlled trials.

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  1. Content type: Case report

    A persistent hyaloid artery is a rare fetal remnant. Several complications such as amblyopia, vitreous hemorrhage, and retinal detachment have been reported. Here, we present a case of vitreous hemorrhage with...

    Authors: Hansol Jeon, Jinsoo Kim and Soonil Kwon

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2019 19:141

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  2. Content type: Research article

    Inositol supplementation has been linked to beneficial effects on reducing the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP); however, it’s controversial. The meta-analysis aimed to check out the efficacy and ...

    Authors: Yang Du, Yue He, Yue-lin Wang, Jian-guo Zhou and Chao Chen

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2019 19:135

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  3. Content type: Research article

    To evaluate the subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) in eyes with macular edema (ME) secondary to retinal vein occlusion(RVO), and to investigate the short term response after a single intravitreal ranibizumab...

    Authors: Fen Tang, Fan Xu, Haibin Zhong, Xin Zhao, Mingliang Lv, Ke Yang, Chaolan Shen, Hui Huang, Jian Lv, Siming Zeng, Min Li and Qi Chen

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2019 19:133

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  4. Content type: Research article

    Nerve growth factor (NGF), produced by Müller cells, and internal limiting membrane (ILM) have fundamental roles in the development of full-thickness macular hole (FTMH). However, the potential crosstalk betwe...

    Authors: Luyi Zhang, Xiaoxia Li, Xiaoqin Lin and Miaoqin Wu

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2019 19:130

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  5. Content type: Research article

    To evaluate the retinal function before and soon after an intravitreal injection of an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) agents.

    Authors: Gaku Terauchi, Kei Shinoda, Hiroyuki Sakai, Makoto Kawashima, Celso Soiti Matsumoto, Atsushi Mizota and Yozo Miyake

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2019 19:129

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  6. Content type: Research article

    To evaluate the efficacy of swept –source optical coherence tomography angiography (SS-OCTA) in grading macular perfusion in retinal vein occlusion.

    Authors: Magdy Moussa, Mahmoud Leila, Amr Saad Bessa, Mohamed Lolah, Mohsen Abou Shousha, Hazem Medhat El Hennawi and Tarek Abdelrazek Hafez

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2019 19:127

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  7. Content type: Research article

    To delineate the characteristics of complicated familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) patients diagnosed before surgery or intra−/post-operatively and to analyze the risk factors for the diagnostic timing.

    Authors: Fengjie Xia, Jiao Lyu, Ping Fei and Peiquan Zhao

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2019 19:126

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  8. Content type: Research article

    To assess the changes in individual retinal layer thickness and visual function associated with gains in visual acuity after an intravitreal conbercept injection in the diabetic macular edema (DME) on spectral...

    Authors: Yupeng Xu, Yuan Qu, Yan Suo, Jian Gao, Xia Chen, Kun Liu and Xun Xu

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2019 19:123

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  9. Content type: Research article

    To examine morphological and functional results after pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) with sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) gas tamponade due to macula-on and macula-off rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) during 6 m...

    Authors: Dorota Borowicz, Katarzyna Nowomiejska, Dominika Nowakowska, Agnieszka Brzozowska, Mario D Toro, Teresio Avitabile, Anselm G. Jünemann and Robert Rejdak

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2019 19:118

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  10. Content type: Research article

    We aimed to investigate the deformation of the outer nuclear layer using optical coherence tomography in patients with epiretinal membrane (ERM) and its relationship with metamorphopsia.

    Authors: Seiji Takagi, Shigeki Kudo, Hideo Yokota, Masahiro Akiba, Michiko Mandai, Yasuhiko Hirami, Masayo Takahashi, Yasuo Kurimoto and Masahiro Ishida

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2019 19:113

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  11. Content type: Research article

    Oxidative stress (OS) is an essential factor in the pathogenesis of branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO). Studies have demonstrated the role of hydrogen gas in the regulation of OS. This study was designed to ...

    Authors: Pan Long, Weiming Yan, Mengshan He, Qianli Zhang, Zhe Wang, Manhong Li, Junhui Xue, Tao Chen, Jing An and Zuoming Zhang

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2019 19:112

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  12. Content type: Case report

    To report a case of unilateral peripheral cone dysfunction syndrome and evaluate the associated clinicopathological changes using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT).

    Authors: Tetsuya Hasegawa, Soichi Tetsuka, Aya Yamaguchi, Chieko Kobashi, Tomomi Sato, Yoshiaki Tanaka and Akihiro Kakehashi

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2019 19:111

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  13. Content type: Case report

    The involvement of choroidal lesions in acute macular neuroretinopathy (AMN) is not yet fully understood. We quantitatively examined sequential changes in the morphology and circulation hemodynamics of the cho...

    Authors: Yuki Hashimoto, Wataru Saito, Michiyuki Saito, Yuka Hasegawa and Susumu Ishida

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2019 19:109

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  14. Content type: Research article

    To investigate, using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A), changes in perfusion density and in the foveal avascular zone (FAZ) in eyes with idiopathic vitreomacular traction (VMT) after ocriplasmi...

    Authors: Lorenzo Iuliano, Giovanni Fogliato, Roberta Colombo, Riccardo Sacconi, Giuseppe Querques, Francesco Bandello and Marco Codenotti

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2019 19:108

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  15. Content type: Case report

    To report the case of a 31-year-old patient with Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD) and concurrent acute monocular maculopathy, and to describe multimodal imaging findings never before described including opt...

    Authors: Michael Reich, Bertan Cakir, Stevan Cvetkoski, Stefan J. Lang, Andreas Stahl, Thomas Ness, Hansjürgen Agostini and Clemens Lange

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2019 19:104

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  16. Content type: Research article

    To describe the effects of intravitreal bevacizumab injection (IVB) and/or transpupillary thermotherapy (TTT) in the treatment of small pigmented choroidal lesions with subfoveal fluid (SFF), and to investigat...

    Authors: Junwon Lee, Hee Jung Kwon, Min Kim, Christopher Seungkyu Lee and Sung Chul Lee

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2019 19:103

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  17. Content type: Case report

    Cancer-associated retinopathy (CAR) is associated with various malignancies, including small cell lung cancer (SCLC). It is difficult to recognize, but prompt diagnosis is crucial for the patient, as retinopat...

    Authors: William Carrera, Kathy A. Tsamis and Rajiv Shah

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2019 19:101

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  18. Content type: Research article

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), the primary cause of blindness in children, is a potential complication for 7.7% of live births in Mexico. Given that less than one-third of all neonatal intensive care units ...

    Authors: Roger Acevedo-Castellón, Paulina Ramírez-Neria and Renata García-Franco

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2019 19:91

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  19. Content type: Research article

    The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review of the current literature on simulator-based training in vitreoretinal surgery (VRS). We examined the results regarding simulated VRS and provided a...

    Authors: Rasmus Christian Rasmussen, Jakob Grauslund and Anna Stage Vergmann

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2019 19:90

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  20. Content type: Research article

    The evidence on diagnostic test accuracy (DTA) of diabetic retinopathy (DR) screening utilising photographic studies by non-ophthalmologist personnel in low and middle-income country (LMIC) settings is scarce....

    Authors: Mapa Mudiyanselage Prabhath Nishantha Piyasena, Jennifer L. Y. Yip, David MacLeod, Min Kim and Venkata S. Murthy Gudlavalleti

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2019 19:89

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  21. Content type: Research article

    To report the clinical course and outcomes of adjunctive dexamethasone implants in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) and retinal detachment (RD) undergoing vitrectomy and silicone oil tamponade.

    Authors: Ah Ran Cho and Young Hee Yoon

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2019 19:86

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  22. Content type: Research article

    To investigate the relationship between the foveal outer nuclear layer (ONL) thickness in the active and resolved phases of central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC), and its possible association with optical coh...

    Authors: Jia Yu, Yuan Lei, Qing Chang, Gezhi Xu, Xiaofeng Ye, Lei Li and Chunhui Jiang

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2019 19:84

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  23. Content type: Research article

    To evaluate the effectiveness of intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) and intravitreal ranibizumab (IVR) in actual practice for treating patients with retinal diseases in Thailand.

    Authors: Suthasinee Kumluang, Lily Ingsrisawang, Sermsiri Sangroongruangsri, Usa Chaikledkaew, Tanapat Ratanapakorn, Paisan Ruamviboonsuk, Wongsiri Taweebanjongsin, Janejit Choovuthayakorn, Somanus Thoongsuwan, Prut Hanutsaha, Kittisak Kulvichit, Thitiporn Ratanapojnard, Warapat Wongsawad, Pattara Leelahavarong and Yot Teerawattananon

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2019 19:82

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  24. Content type: Research article

    Vitreomacular adhesion (VMA) has been reported to associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Understanding the mechanisms underlying cyclic stretch induced in retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE...

    Authors: Xida Liang, Zengyi Wang, Meng Gao, Shen Wu, Jingxue Zhang, Qian Liu, Yanping Yu, Jing Wang and Wu Liu

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2019 19:79

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  25. Content type: Case report

    Focal choroidal excavation (FCE) is a common concurrent disease with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) and choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Photodynamic therapy (PDT) was able to cease the course of CS...

    Authors: Yang Liu, Xin Wang, Min Zhu, Gezhi Xu and Lei Li

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2019 19:68

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  26. Content type: Research article

    Povidone-Iodine (PI) may be diluted when used as an antiseptic prior to an intravitreal injection in an attempt to decrease patient discomfort. This study aims to investigate the effect of diluting povidone-io...

    Authors: Sivashanth Gnanasekaran, Sophie Rogers, Sanj Wickremasinghe and Sukhpal S. Sandhu

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2019 19:62

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  27. Content type: Research article

    Type 1 retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is occasionally observed in preterm infants after the postmenstrual age (PMA) of 40 weeks; however, evidence-based treatment guidelines are largely lacking. In this stud...

    Authors: Jiao Lyu, Qi Zhang, Chunli Chen, Yu Xu, Xunda Ji and Peiquan Zhao

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2019 19:60

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  28. Content type: Research article

    Many patients voice concerns regarding poor night vision, even when they see 20/20 or better in the exam room. During mesopic and scotopic conditions the pupil size increases, increasing the effects on visual ...

    Authors: Nicole M. Putnam, Balamurali Vasudevan, Andre Juarez, Cam Tu Le, Kristine Sam, Pablo de Gracia and Allissun Hoppert

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2019 19:49

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  29. Content type: Research article

    A study was conducted to evaluate the choroidal thickness (CT) and retinal thickness (RT) in paediatric patients with hypoalbuminaemia caused by nephrotic syndrome (NS). We also studied the correlation between...

    Authors: Wenbo Zhang, Yadi Zhang, Lei Kang, Xiaopeng Gu, Hailong Wu and Liu Yang

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2019 19:44

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  30. Content type: Research article

    Multifocal choroiditis (MFC) is multi-inflammatory lesions that occur in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and the choriocapillaris. Optical examinations are the major diagnostic methods to diagnose the dis...

    Authors: Juanjuan Li, Yunpeng Li, Hua Li and Liwei Zhang

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2019 19:39

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  31. Content type: Technical advance

    Color fundus photography have been extensively used to explore the link between retinal morphology changes associated with various disease i.e. Diabetic Retinopathy, Glaucoma. The development of multimodal ima...

    Authors: Aqsa Ajaz, Behzad Aliahmad, Himeesh Kumar, Marc Sarossy and Dinesh K. Kumar

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2019 19:27

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  32. Content type: Research article

    To determine the levels of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in the vitreous of patients with high myopia, in comparison with those with a vitreomacular interface diseas...

    Authors: Xinyi Ding, Rong Zhang, Shujie Zhang, Hong Zhuang and Gezhi Xu

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2019 19:25

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  33. Content type: Research article

    By investigating that (i) all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) affects human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in expressing and secreting transforming growth factor (TGF)-β2 and (ii) U73122 (phospholipase C inhibitor) ...

    Authors: Daren Zhang, Zhihong Deng, Jia Tan, Shuirong Liu, Shuyu Hu, Hui Tao and Renhong Tang

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2019 19:23

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  34. Content type: Research article

    To identify baseline patient characteristics associated with early clinically significant visual acuity (VA) improvements within 3 months of treatment initiation in ranibizumab-treated patients with retinal ve...

    Authors: W. Lloyd Clark, Mimi Liu, John Kitchens, Pin-wen Wang and Zdenka Haskova

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2019 19:11

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  35. Content type: Research article

    Retinal vein occlusion (RVO) is a common retinal venous disorder that causes vision loss. No specific therapy has been developed. Controversy exists regarding two treatments: intravitreal dexamethasone implant...

    Authors: Lixiong Gao, Lijun Zhou, Chunyu Tian, Na Li, Weiyang Shao, Xiujun Peng and Qian Shi

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2019 19:8

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