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Section edited by Hemant Khanna and Javier Zarranz-Ventura

This section considers articles on all aspects of the prevention, diagnosis and management of retinal diseases as well as related molecular and cellular biology, genetics and pathophysiology. The section particularly welcomes prospective clinical studies, especially randomized controlled trials.

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  1. Content type: Research article

    Attention is increasingly being given to microglia-related inflammation in neovascular diseases, such as diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular disease. Evidence shows that activated microglia contribute...

    Authors: Xinyi Ding, Ruiping Gu, Meng Zhang, Hui Ren, Qinmeng Shu, Gezhi Xu and Haixiang Wu

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2018 18:249

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  2. Content type: Case report

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP), a neurodegenerative disease, is occasionally accompanied by choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and cystoid macular oedema. It is presently treated with repeated intravitreal injectio...

    Authors: Manabu Miyata, Akio Oishi, Maho Oishi, Tomoko Hasegawa, Hanako Ohashi Ikeda and Akitaka Tsujikawa

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2018 18:248

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  3. Content type: Case report

    Deferoxamine (DFO) is one of the most commonly used chelation treatments for transfusional hemosiderosis. Pattern dystrophies constitute a distinct entity of retinal disorders that has been occasionally identi...

    Authors: Constantine D. Georgakopoulos, Foteini Tsapardoni, Elli V. Kostopoulou and Olga E. Makri

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2018 18:246

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  4. Content type: Case report

    To report our findings in a young patient with unilateral retinitis pigmentosa (RP)-like appearance who developed pigmentary changes in his left retina after an episode of bilateral pars planitis.

    Authors: José I. Vela, Ivanna Marcantonio, Jesús Díaz-Cascajosa, Jaume Crespí and José A. Buil

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2018 18:242

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  5. Content type: Case report

    Macular hole (MH) may become refractory if the hole does not close after multiple surgeries. We provide a modified surgical technique for refractory MH repair with neurosensory retinal free flap transplantation.

    Authors: Pei-Kang Liu, Yo-Chen Chang and Wen-Chuan Wu

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2018 18:230

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  6. Content type: Research article

    The Fred Hollows Foundation (FHF) Cambodia recently partnered with the Ministry of Women’s Affairs (MoWA) and National Program for Eye Health (NPEH, part of the Ministry of Health) to establish the Gender Equalit...

    Authors: Camille Neyhouser, Ingrid Quinn, Tessa Hillgrove, Renee Chan, Chhorvann Chhea, Seang Peou and Pol Sambath

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2018 18:217

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  7. Content type: Research article

    To evaluate the surgical technique using autologous retinal graft (ARG) and autologous blood clot (ABC) for the management of refractory macular holes (MHs).

    Authors: An-Lun Wu, Lan-Hsin Chuang, Nan-Kai Wang, Kuan-Jen Chen, Laura Liu, Ling Yeung, Tun-Lu Chen, Yih-Shiou Hwang, Wei-Chi Wu and Chi-Chun Lai

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2018 18:213

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  8. Content type: Case report

    Falciform retinal detachment (FRD) usually causes pronounced retinal wrinkles, and the prognosis of visual function is poor. In this present study, we report a rare case of FRD in which optical coherence tomog...

    Authors: Daisaku Kimura, Masanori Fukumoto, Takaki Sato, Ryohsuke Kohmoto, Takatoshi Kobayashi, Teruyo Kida and Tsunehiko Ikeda

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2018 18:216

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  9. Content type: Research article

    To evaluate safety and efficacy of transpupillary silicone oil removal combined with micro-incision phacoemulsification cataract surgery, and to compare results of transpupillary with 23-gauge three-port vitre...

    Authors: Wei Xu, Weijing Cheng, Hua Zhuang, Jian Guo and Guoxing Xu

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2018 18:200

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  10. Content type: Research article

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a disorder of the developing retina of preterm infants due to defective vasculogenesis. The aim of the study was to analyze the level of awareness, knowledge, attitude and p...

    Authors: Mohammad T. Akkawi, Jamal A. S. Qaddumi, Hala R. M. Issa and Liana J. K. Yaseen

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2018 18:195

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  11. Content type: Research article

    The prognostic value of the ocular trauma score (OTS) in patients who underwent 23-gauge pars plana vitrectomy (23-G PPV) for surgical removal of posterior segment metallic intaocular foreign bodies (IOFB) was...

    Authors: Dilek Yaşa, Zeynep Gizem Erdem, Ali Demircan, Gökhan Demir and Zeynep Alkın

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2018 18:194

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  12. Content type: Research article

    In this study, we evaluated the effects of intermittent high glucose on oxidative stress production in retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells and explored whether the mechanisms of autophagy and apoptosis in...

    Authors: Wei Zhang, Jian Song, Yue Zhang, Yingxue Ma, Jing Yang, Guanghui He and Song Chen

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2018 18:192

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  13. Content type: Research article

    Numerous studies have suggested that the integrity of the cone interdigitation zone (IZ) could be considered to be a marker of photoreceptor damage and its recovery. However, little is known about the IZ in he...

    Authors: Ruiping Gu, Guohua Deng, Yi Jiang, Chunhui Jiang and Gezhi Xu

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2018 18:188

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  14. Content type: Research article

    To investigate the characteristics of retinal vessels and retinal thickness in eyes with early age-related macular degeneration (AMD) with or without reticular pseudodrusen.

    Authors: So Min Ahn, Suk Yeon Lee, Soon-Young Hwang, Seong-Woo Kim, Jaeryung Oh and Cheolmin Yun

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2018 18:184

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  15. Content type: Study protocol

    Macular neovascular diseases can cause severe vision loss. A newly approved anti—VEGF drug Conbercept has shown good efficacy and safety in rigorous random controlled trials (RCT), however, it cannot fully ref...

    Authors: Jin Jing, Shen Yinchen, Chen Xia, Wang Jing, Chen Chong, Xu Xun, Huang Hengye and Liu Kun

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2018 18:181

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  16. Content type: Research article

    The anatomical success rate of macular hole surgery ranges around 93–98%. However, the prognosis of large macular holes is generally poor. The study was conducted to compare the anatomical and visual outcomes ...

    Authors: Naresh Babu Kannan, Piyush Kohli, Haemoglobin Parida, O. O. Adenuga and Kim Ramasamy

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2018 18:177

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  17. Content type: Research article

    To assess the safety and efficacy of two subthreshold parameters (5 and 15% duty cycle (DC)) compared to standard ETDRS (early treatment of diabetic retinopathy study) continuous wave (CW) laser.

    Authors: Jay Chhablani, Rayan Alshareef, David Ta Kim, Raja Narayanan, Abhilash Goud and Annie Mathai

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2018 18:168

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  18. Content type: Research article

    Bacteria in the conjunctiva present a potential risk of vitreous cavity infection during 23-gauge pars plana vitrectomy (PPV). Current preoperative procedures used in Sweden include irrigation with chlorhexidi...

    Authors: Nasser J. Gili, Torbjörn Noren, Eva Törnquist, Sven Crafoord and Anders Bäckman

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2018 18:167

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  19. Content type: Research article

    To determine the effect of age on the thickness of individual retinal and choroidal vascular layers in the macula in an ophthalmologically healthy Chinese cohort by using spectral-domain optical coherence tomo...

    Authors: Qian Xu, Ying Li, Ying Cheng and Yi Qu

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2018 18:169

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  20. Content type: Research article

    To evaluate inner retinal dimples after peeling of the inner limiting membrane (ILM) for macular holes (lamellar macular hole [LMH] and full-thickness macular hole [FTMH]) via multiple imaging modes of spectra...

    Authors: Jingjing Liu, Yiye Chen, Shiyuan Wang, Xiang Zhang and Peiquan Zhao

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2018 18:155

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  21. Content type: Research article

    This study sought to identify factors associated with retinal detachment and retreatment of aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity (APROP) initially treated with intravitreal ranibizumab (IVR) injecti...

    Authors: Qizhe Tong, Hong Yin, Mingwei Zhao, Xiaoxin Li and Wenzhen Yu

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2018 18:150

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  22. Content type: Research article

    The aim of this study is to analyze and compare the progression of photoreceptor atrophy among siblings affected by retinitis pigmentosa by means of spectral SD-OCT.

    Authors: Leonardo Colombo, Giovanni Montesano, Barbara Sala, Fabio Patelli, Paolo Maltese, Andi Abeshi, Matteo Bertelli and Luca Rossetti

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2018 18:153

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  23. Content type: Research article

    In 2013 five polar explorers attempted to complete the first Trans-Antarctic Winter Traverse (TAWT). This study presents the ophthalmological findings for this group, who overwintered in Antarctica as part of ...

    Authors: Matthew H. Stahl, Alexander Kumar, Robert Lambert, Michael Stroud, David Macleod, Andrew Bastawrous, Tunde Peto and Matthew J. Burton

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2018 18:149

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  24. Content type: Case report

    Galloway-Mowat syndrome (GMS) is a rare autosomal recessive condition first described in 1968 and characterized by microcephaly and infantile onset of central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities resulting in se...

    Authors: Maha A. Al-Rakan, Manal D. Abothnain, Muhammad T. Alrifai and Majid Alfadhel

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2018 18:147

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  25. Content type: Research article

    To study the clinical outcomes of pigment epithelial detachment (PED) associated with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) in patients switched from Ranibizumab to Aflibercept.

    Authors: Pallavi Tyagi, Zain Juma, Yong Keen Hor, Neil W. Scott, Andreea Ionean and Cynthia Santiago

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2018 18:148

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  26. Content type: Research article

    The optimal treatment for polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) is still under debate. Little knowledge is known about the treatment effect of “1+pro re nata(PRN)” treatment regimen for PCV. The aim of this ...

    Authors: Kunbei Lai, Ying Li, Lijun Zhou, Xiaojin Zhong, Chuangxin Huang, Fabao Xu, Lin Lu, Jian Ge and Chenjin Jin

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2018 18:144

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  27. Content type: Case report

    Pigmented paravenous retinochoroidal atrophy (PPRCA) is an unusual retinal degeneration, and its performance on optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is unclear. We report a Chinese female case of PP...

    Authors: Yinchen Shen, Xun Xu and Hui Cao

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2018 18:136

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  28. Content type: Research article

    To establish the independent association between blood pressure (BP) and retinal vascular caliber, especially the retinal venular caliber, in a population of 12-year-old Chinese children.

    Authors: Yuan He, Shi-Ming Li, Meng-Tian Kang, Luo-Ru Liu, He Li, Shi-Fei Wei, An-Ran Ran and Ningli Wang

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2018 18:133

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  29. Content type: Case report

    To report a case series in which a modified technique was used to remove retained submacular perfluorocarbon liquid (PFCL) secondary to vitreoretinal surgery for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment.

    Authors: Zhongjing Lin, Yanwei Chen, Sha Gao, Yisheng Zhong and Xi Shen

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2018 18:132

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  30. Content type: Research article

    To evaluate the relative efficacy and safety of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) agents for the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD).

    Authors: Chu Luan Nguyen, Lawrence J. Oh, Eugene Wong, Joe Wei and Michael Chilov

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2018 18:130

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  31. Content type: Research article

    Subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) in highly myopic eyes was found to be correlated with increasing age, refractive error (spherical equivalent), and axial length. Which factor is the most significant predic...

    Authors: Bingqian Liu, Yan Wang, Tao Li, Ying Lin, Wei Ma, Xiaohong Chen, Cancan Lyu, Yonghao Li and Lin Lu

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2018 18:127

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  32. Content type: Research article

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of integration of the eye-tracking system (ET) on the repeatability of flow density measurements using optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography.

    Authors: Maged Alnawaiseh, Cristin Brand, Eike Bormann, Cristina Sauerland and Nicole Eter

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2018 18:123

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  33. Content type: Research article

    This meta-analysis evaluated the effectiveness and safety of dexamethasone (DEX) implant and intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) treatment for diabetic macular edema (DME).

    Authors: Ye He, Xin-jun Ren, Bo-jie Hu, Wai-Ching Lam and Xiao-rong Li

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2018 18:121

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  34. Content type: Research article

    To assess capillary dropout in the superficial retinal capillary plexus (SCP) by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in the early stage of diabetic retinopathy (DR).

    Authors: Ceying Shen, Shu Yan, Min Du, Hong Zhao, Ling Shao and Yibo Hu

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2018 18:113

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  35. Content type: Research article

    The relationship between the role of VEGF and autophagy in the process of retinal angiogenesis is still unclear. In this study, we explored this issue by using the mouse retinal vascular endothelial cell (RVEC...

    Authors: Rong Li, Jin Tian, Junhui Du, Lei Zhao, Yang Yao, Zhaoxiang Yu, Weiping Chang, Rui Shi and Jing Li

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2018 18:110

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  36. Content type: Research article

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of combined 23-gauge transconjunctival pars plana vitrectomy and scleral fixation of intraocular lens (IOL) without conjunctival dissection.

    Authors: Ling Yeung, Nan-Kai Wang, Wei-Chi Wu and Kuan-Jen Chen

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2018 18:108

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  37. Content type: Research article

    The critical time from onset of complete occlusion of the central retinal artery (CRA) to functionally significant inner retinal infarction represents a window of opportunity for treatment and also has medical...

    Authors: Stephan Tobalem, James S. Schutz and Argyrios Chronopoulos

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2018 18:101

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  38. Content type: Case report

    To report the results of multimodal imaging of a biochemically confirmed case of a family with gyrate atrophy (GA) associated with foveoschisis and macular pseudohole.

    Authors: Imène Zhioua Braham, Imen Ammous, Rim Maalej, Majdi Boukari, Ilhem Mili Boussen, Khalil Errais and Raja Zhioua

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2018 18:89

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  39. Content type: Research article

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of diabetic macular edema (DME) utilizing optical coherence tomography (OCT), and to clarify the effects of the systemic findings and risk factors on the de...

    Authors: Durgul Acan, Mehmet Calan, Duygu Er, Tugba Arkan, Nilufer Kocak, Firat Bayraktar and Suleyman Kaynak

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2018 18:91

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  40. Content type: Case report

    Indocyanine Green Angiography (ICG-A) and Enhanced Depth Imaging Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (EDI-OCT) are essential imaging techniques for diagnosis, management and understanding of the patho...

    Authors: Emilia Maggio, Alessandro Alfano, Antonio Polito and Grazia Pertile

    Citation: BMC Ophthalmology 2018 18:87

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