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Table 1 Potential 73 Risk Factors for Late Age-related macular degeneration, Identified in the Initial Review

From: Clinical risk factors for age-related macular degeneration: a systematic review and meta-analysis

• Ocular factors (n = 15)
   • Nuclear opacity
   • Cortical opacity
   • Pterygium
   • Lens opacity
   • Horizontal cup-to-disc ratio
   • Fellow eye
   • Iris color*
   • Eye disease*
   • Cataract/Cataract surgery*
   • Arcus cornea
   • Arterioar-to-venular ratio
   • Frekling
   • Spherical equivalents
   • Eye glasses for distance vision
   • Family history of AMD
Cardiovascular factors (n = 7)
   • Atherosclerosis
   • History of CVD and cerebrovascular disease*
   • Serum Total Cholesterol level and Serum HDL Cholesterol level
   • Hypertension*
   • Plasma antioxidants
Other medical conditions or marker (n = 8)
   • Biochemical variables* including serum albumin, C-Reactive Protein,* plasma fibrinogen, and serum triglyceride )
   • Bone mineral density
   • Diabetes*
   • Arthritis
   • Menopause
Diet (n = 11)
   • Dietary intake
   • Fat*
   • Animal fat*
   • Vegetable fat*
   • Linoleic acid
   • ∞-3 fatty acids EPA/DHA
   • Antioxidants*
   • Saturated fat
   • Monounsaturated fat
   • Polyunsaturated fat
   • Trans-unsaturated fat
Medications (n = 9)
   • Birth control use
   • Diuretics use
   • Antacid use
   • Antihypertensive medication use
   • Anti-inflammatory drug use
   • Hydrochlorothiazide use
   • Hormone replacement therapy
   • Hormones (women)
   • Hypnotics/sedative
Life style (n = 3)
   • Smoking*
   • Alcohol consumption
   • Physical activity level
Light and other exposures (n = 3)
   • Place of birth
   • Solar radiation/outdoor exposure*
   • Chemical exposure
Genetics (n = 9)
   • fibulin 5
   • CST3
   • CX3CR
   • TLR4
   • VEGF
   • LRP6
   • MMP9
   • HLA family of genes
   • CFH
Demographics (n = 8)
   • Gender*
   • Age*
   • Race/ethnicity*
   • Education*
   • Weight/Body mass index*
   • Waist circumference
   • Height
   • Marital status