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Table 2 Summary of included studies

From: Health state utilities in patients with diabetic retinopathy, diabetic macular oedema and age-related macular degeneration: a systematic review

Study reference, Condition, (number of patients) Country Mean age, years (SD) Females (%) Reference eye ( units of VA measurement ) Mean VA at baseline (SD) Health state utility measure (Anchor) Mean utility at baseline
Aspinall et al. [19] UK 77.8 42 Binocular (distant) vision 0.49 TTO (perfect vision) 0.81
(6.7) (0.43)
AMD (122)     Binocular (near) vision (logMAR) 0.72   
(0.43)
Au Eong et al. [20] Singapore 68.1 62 BSE NR EQ-5Da 0.89
(9.4)
     WSE NR TTO (perfect vision) 0.81
AMD (338)     WVA (logMAR) NR SG (perfect vision/death) 0.86
       SG (perfect vision/binocular blindness) 0.91
Brown [30] USA 67.5 63 BSE NR TTO (perfect vision) NR
DR (107)     WSE (Snellen units, feet) NR SG (perfect health/death) NR
AMD (107)
Macular
Oedema (5)
Brown et al. [31]a,b USA    WSEc (Snellen units, feet)   TTO (perfect vision) NR
DR (28) [Unilateral good vision group] 66 59   0.33 to 1.0   
AMD (36) (11)
Macular
Oedema (2)
  [Bilateral good vision group] 60 58   0.8 to 1.0   
(10)
Brown et al. [16] USA    BSE (Snellen units, feet)   TTO (perfect vision) 0.74
DR (333) DR 62.2 58   20/40   
AMD (248) (11.8)
  AMD 73.2 43   20/45   
(9.8)
Brown et al. [32]a USA 67.5 61 BSE (Snellen units, feet) NR TTO (perfect vision) 0.79
(12.2)
DR (170)        
AMD (145)
Czoski-Murray et al. [21]c UK 32.0 51 BSE NR TTO (full health) NR
(12.5)
AMD (108)        
Espallargues et al. [22] UK 79.6 58 BSE 1.01 EQ-5D 0.72
(7.5) (0.67)
AMD (209)     WSE 1.68 HUI-3 0.34
(0.75)
     Binocular (distant) vision 0.49 SF-6D 0.66
(0.43)
     Binocular (near) vision (logMAR) 0.46 TTO (full health) 0.64
(0.88)
Lee et al. [23]d USA 75.4 50 BSE (Snellen units, feet) f 0.4 SG (perfect vision/death) 0.83-0.87
(6.2) (0.41)
DR (58)       SG (perfect vision/unilateral blindness) 0.66-0.79
AMD (44)
Lloyd et al. [24] UK NR NR BSE (Snellen units, metres) NR EQ-5D NR
DR (122)        
Reeves et al. [25] UK NR NR BSE (ETDRS letters) NR SF-6D NR
AMD (1,829)        
Sahel et al. [26] France, Germany, Italy 77 60 BSE 0.49 HUI3 0.48
(8.0)
AMD (360)     WSE (logMAR) 1   
Shah et al. [33]a USA 67.5 66 BSE (Snellen units, feet) NR TTO (perfect vision) NR
DR/AMD(150)        
Sharma et al. [34]a Canada 67.5 64 BSE (Snellen units, metres) NR TTO (perfect vision) 0.78
(11.9)
DR (105)       SG (perfect vision/death) 0.85
AMD (107)
Sharma et al. [27] Canada 63.5 48 BSE (Snellen units, metres) NR TTO (perfect vision) NR
(12.5)
DR (221)        
Soubrane et al. [28]e Canada, France, Germany, Spain, UK 78.1 65 BSE (Snellen units, feet) f 0.6 EQ-5D 0.65
(6.9) (0.7)
AMD (401)        
Yanagi et al. [29] Japan 75.9 85 BSE (logMAR) NR TTO (perfect vision) 0.6
AMD (48)       SG (perfect vision/death) 0.7
  1. Abbreviations: BGV bilateral good vision, BSE better-seeing eye, EQ-5D EuroQol, HUI3 Health Utilities Index Mark 3, logMAR logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution, NR not reported, SF-6D Short Form 6D, TTO time trade-off, SG standard gamble, UGV unilateral good vision, WSE worse-seeing eye, WVA weighted visual acuity.
  2. aThe study participants had different ocular conditions including DR, macular oedema (undefined) and AMD. Sample sizes presented here are based on the proportion of patients with DR, AMD or macular oedema within the study population.
  3. bThis study compared utilities between patients with bilateral (n = 69) and unilateral good vision (n = 81).
  4. cIn this study, AMD health states were simulated by using contact lenses in a healthy sample of a general population.
  5. dOver 50% of patients had mild DR, while only 2 out of 10 AMD patients had moderate disease.
  6. eThis study compared utilities in patients with AMD and non-AMD 'controls’.
  7. fSnellen units were converted to logMAR units.