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Table 3 Factors associated with the ocular morbidity in three ecological regions

From: Factors associated with childhood ocular morbidity and blindness in three ecological regions of Nepal: Nepal pediatric ocular disease study

Description Ocular disease present N (%) Ocular disease absent N (%) Chi-square test
P value
Demographic factors     
Region Terai 116(2.2%) 5092(97.7%) 0.000
Hill 78(2.5%) 3058(97.5%)
Mountain 180(9.3%) 1746(90.7%)
Age (years) <5 96(2.5%) 3789(97.5%) 0.000
> = 5-10 278(4.4%) 6107(95.6%)
Sex Female 172(3.4%) 4916(96.6%) 0.16
Male 202(3.9%) 4980(96.1%)
Religion Hindu 140(2.7%) 5097(97.3%) 0.000
Buddhist 184(6.8%) 2523(93.2%)
Christian 15(2.5%) 582(97.5%)
0thers 35(2.0%) 1694(98.0)
Type of family Nuclear 237(3.6%) 6314(96.4%) 0.37
Joint 117(3.9%) 2890(96.1%)
Extended 20(2.8%) 692(97.2%)
Maternal factors     
History of marriage (Consanguinity) Yes 175(7.0%) 2332(93.0%) 0.000
No 199(2.6%) 7555(97.4%)
Mothers education Literate 117(3.0%) 3733(97.0) 0.006
Illiterate 257(4.0%) 6163(96%)
Mother’s smoking habit Yes 117(3.0%) 3742(97.0%) 0.01
No 257(4.0%) 6154(96.0%)
Mother’s alcohol habit Yes 142(7.1%) 1883(92.9%) 0
No 2326(2.8%) 8013(97.2%)
ANC period Uneventful 339(3.7%) 8774(96.3%) 0.23
Eventful 35(3.0%) 1122(97.0%)
Biological factors     
Birth history Full term 373(3.6%) 9885(96.4%) 0.48
Preterm 1(14.3%) 10(85.7%)
Place of birth Home 348(3.7%) 8949(96.3%) 0.9
HF 26(2.7%) 947(97.3%)
Type of delivery Normal 372(3.6%) 9825(96.4%) 0.93
Forceps 1(4.3%) 22(95.7%)
Vacuum 0(0) 3(100%)
C/S 1(2.1%) 46(97.9%)
Postnatal period Uneventful 370(3.6%) 9881(96.4%) 0.000
Eventful 4(21.1%) 15(78.9%)
Immunization Yes 360(3.5%) 9797(96.5%) 0.000
No 14(12.4%) 99(87.6%)
Previous ocular surgery/treatment Yes 10(21.7%) 36(78.3%) 0.000
No 364(3.6%) 9860(96.4%)
Systemic illness Yes 5(23.8%) 16(76.2%) 0.000
No 369(3.6%) 9879(96.4%)