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Table 1 Hyperopia prevalence among children in the analyzed studies

From: Hyperopia: a meta-analysis of prevalence and a review of associated factors among school-aged children

Author (Year) N Age range Hyperopia definition Response Rate (%) Prevalence (%) 95% CI Age specific prevalence (95% CI)
Location
    SE     
Zhao (2000) [10] 5884 5-15 years ≥ + 2.00 D 95.9 2.7 Not available Males:
RESC 5 years: 8.8% (2.4 – 15.2)
Shunyi District, China ca 15 years: less than 2%
Females:
5years: 19.6% (8.1 – 31.0)
15 years: less than 2%
He (2004) [11] 4364 5-15 years ≥ + 2.00 D 86.4 4.6 4.4 – 4.9 5 years: 17.0% (12.8 – 21.3)
RESC 6 years: 10.7% ( 6.4 – 15.1)
Guangzhou, China ca 7 years: 4.0% (1.3 – 6.7)
8 years: 7.1% (3.9 – 10.4)
9 years: 3.8 % (2.0 – 5.6)
10 years: 4.6% (2.1 – 7.1)
11 years: 3.5% (1.7 – 5.6)
12 years: 2.0% (0.5 – 3.6)
13 years: 3.4 % (1.6 – 5.2)
14 years: 1.2% (0.3 – 2.1)
15 years: 0.5% (0.0 – 1.3)
Fan (2004) [12] 7560 5-16 years ≥ + 2.00 D Not stated 4.0 Not available Not available
Right eye
ca
Hong Koong, China
Zhan (2000) [13] Xiamen city: 132 6-7 years ≥ + 2.00 D Not stated Xiamen city: 3.0 0.8 – 7.8 Not available
Xiamen Right eye Xiamen countryside: 1.9 1.4 – 2.3
ca Singapore: 2.7 0.8 – 6.9
Xiamen city, Xiamen Countryside and Singapore, China countryside: 104
Singapore: 146
Pi (2010) [14] 3070 6-15 years ≥ + 2.00 D 88.50 3.26 2.6 – 3.9 6 years: 9.21% (5.5 – 12.9)
Yong Chuan District, Western China At last one eye was hyperopic 7 years: 7.7% (4.7 – 10.6)
8 years: 5.3% (2.9 – 7.7)
cr 9 years 3.1% (1.3 – 4.9)
10 years: 3.5% (1.6 – 5.5)
11 years: 1.2% (0.0 – 2.5)
12 years: 0.7% (0.0 – 1.6)
13 years: 0.3% (0.0 – 1.0)
14 years: 1.1% (0.0 – 2.2)
15 years: 0.9% (0.0 – 2.1)
He (2007) [15] 2454 12-18 years ≥ + 2.00 D 97.6 1.20 0.8 – 1.6 13 years: 0.9% (0.1 – 3.1)
RESC 14 years: 1.5 % (0.5 – 2.5)
ca 15 years: 1.3 % (0.5 – 2.2)
Yangxi County, China 16 years: 1.0% (0.3 – 2.5)
17 years: 0.0
Saw (2006) [16] Malaysia: 7-9 years ≥ +2.00D 83.3 Malaysia:2.9 1.9 – 3.8 Malaysia (N = 1752)
7 years: 5.0% (3.0 – 7.0)
8 years: 2.0% (0.7 – 3.3)
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 1752 RESC Singapore: 1.7 1.2 – 2.4 9 years: 1.6% (0.4 – 2.8)
Singapore Singapore:1962 ca Singapore (N = 1962)
7 years: 2.1% (1.3 – 3.3)
8 years: 1.9% (1.0 – 3.3)
9 years: 0.8% (0.2 – 2.1)
Goh (2005) [17] 4634 7-15 years ≥ + 2.00 D 83.8 1.6 1.1 – 2.1 7 years: 5.0% (3.0 – 7.0)
RESC 8 years: 2.0% (0.7 – 3.3)
ca 9 years: 1.6% (0.4 – 2.8)
10 years: 1.4 % (0.1 – 2.6)
11 years: 0.9 % (0.0 – 2.6)
Gombak District, Malaysia 12 years: 0.6% (0.0 – 1.2)
13 years: 0.5% (0.0 – 1.1)
14 years: 0.0
15 years: 0.9% (0.0 – 1.9)
Pokharel (2000) [18] 5067 5-15 years ≥ + 2.00 D Not stated 2.1 Not available Not available
RESC
ca
Mechi Zone, Nepal
Gao (2012) [19] 5527 12-14 years ≥ + 2.00 D 89.8 Urban: 1.4 0.1– 1.7 Urban:
At last one eye was hyperopic Rural: 0.4 0.2 – 0.6 12 years: 0.7% (0.4 – 1.0)
13 years: 0.7% (0.4 – 0.9)
Phnom Penhn and Kandal Provinces, Cambodia cr 14 years: 0.8% (0.3 – 1.3)
Casson (2012) [20] 2899 6-11 years ≥ + 2.00 D 87.0 2.8 1.9 – 3.7 6 years: 3.1% (1.7 – 5.1)
RESC 11years: 1.1% (0.3 – 2.9)
cr
Vientiane Province, Lao PDR
Murthy (2002) [21] 6447 5-15 years ≥ + 2.00 D 92 7.4 6.0 – 8.8 5 years: 15.6 % (11.0 – 20.2)
RESC
cr
New Delhi, India 6 years: 13.0% (9.1 – 16.8)
7 years: 10.7% (7.0 – 14.2)
8 years: 8.5% (5.9 – 11.2)
9 years: 6.6% (3.7 – 9.5)
10 years: 5.2% (2.4 – 8.1)
11 years: 7.8% (4.7 – 10.8)
12 years: 5.0% (3.5 – 6.5)
13 years: 3.3% (1.7 – 4.9)
14 years: 4.4% (2.4 – 6.5)
15 years: 3.9% (2.1 – 5.7)
Dandona (2002) [22] Mahabubnagar, Andhra Pradesh, India 4074 7-15 years ≥ + 2.00 D 92.3 0.68 0.4 – 1.0 Rural:
At last one eye was hyperopic 7 years: 0.7% (0.0 – 1.2)
8 years: 0.3% (0.0 – 0.8)
9 years: 0.4% (0.0 – 1.0)
cr 10 years: 1.2% (0.1 – 2.3)
11 years: 1.6% (0.4 – 2.8)
12 years: 0.8% (0.0 – 1.5)
13 years: 0.6% (0.0 – 1.4)
14 years: 0.3% (0.0 – 1.1)
15 years: 1.1% (0.0 – 2.6)
Uzma (2009) [23] Urban: 1789 7-15 years ≥ + 2.00 D Not stated Urban: 3.3 1.8 – 4.8 Urban:
Hyderabad, India Rural: 1525   At last one eye was hyperopic Rural: 3.1 1.7 – 4.5 7 years: 4.6% (2.6 – 6.6)
ca 8 years: 2.0% (0.4 – 3.6)
9 years: 1.7% (0.8 – 2.6)
10 years: 1.3% (0.5 – 2.1)
11 years: 2.2% (0.9 – 3.1)
12 years: 0.4% (0.0 – 0.8)
13 years: 0.2% (0.0 – 0.4)
14 years: 0.0
15 years: 0.4% (0.0 – 0.8)
Rural:
7 years: 9.8% (6.6 – 13.0)
8 years: 8.1% (5.4 – 10.8)
9 years: 7.3% ( 3.7 – 10.9)
10 years: 4.1% (2.1 – 6.1)
11 years: 3.2% (1.9 – 4.5)
12 years: 3.2% (1.6 – 4.8)
13 years: 2.4% (0.9 – 3.9)
14 years: 0.0
15 years: 0.0
Fotouhi (2007) [9] 3673 7-15 years ≥ + 2.00 D 96.8 16.6 13.6 – 19.7 7 years: 28.9% (22.6 – 35.2)
Dezful, Iran RESC 8 years: 22.7% (16.4 – 28.9)
ca 9 years: 16.7% (12.0 – 21.4)
10 years: 12.4% (7.9 – 17.0)
11 years: 12.9% ( 8.3 – 17.5)
12 years: 16.9% (12.3 – 21.5)
13 years: 14.1% (10.6 – 17.6)
14 years: 13.0% (9.8 – 16.1)
15 years: 10.3% (1.5 – 19.1)
Hashemi (2010) [24] 345 5-10 years ≥ + 2.00 D Not stated 10 Not available Not available
Tehran, Iran Right eye
ca
Ostadimoghaddam (2011) [25] Mashhad, Iran 639 5-15 years ≥ + 2.00 D Not stated 19.05 15.7 – 22.4 Not available
At last one eye was hyperopic
ca
Rezvan (2012) [26] 1551 6-17 years ≥ + 2.00 D 76.8 5.4 4.3 – 6.5 8 years: 6.8% (2.7–11.0)
Bojnourd, Iran RESC 9 years 8.2% (3.9–12.5)
ca 10 years: 8.3% (4.1–12.6)
11 years: 5.6 % (2.0–9.2)
12 years: 3.8% (1.3–6.2)
13 years: 2.3% (0.3–4.3)
14 years: 2.5% (0.3–4.6)
Yekta (2010) [27] 2130 7-15 years ≥ + 2.00 D 87.88 5.04 3.5 – 6.6 7 years: 8.9% (6.1 – 11.8)
Shiraz, Iran RESC 8 years: 7.7% (1.9 – 13.5)
ca 9 years: 4.8% (1.6 – 8.1)
10 years: 7.0% (2.8 – 11.1)
11 years: 2.1% (0.7 – 5.8)
12 years: 3.0% (1.2 – 4.8)
13 years: 2.2% (0.6 – 3.8)
14 years: 5.9% (0.1 – 11.8)
15 years: 0.0
Robaei (2005) [28] 1765 6 years ≥ + 2.00 D Not stated 9.8 Not available -
Right eye
ca
SMS, Sydney, Australia
Ip (2008) [29] 4094 6 years ≥ + 2.00 D Not stated - - 6 years: 13.0% (9.1 – 16.8)
SMS, Sydney, Australia 12 years Eye with greater refractive error 12 years: 5.0% (3.5 – 6.5)
ca
Ip (2008) [30] 2353 11-15 years ≥ + 2.00 D Not stated 3.5 2.8 – 4.1 Not available
SMS, Sydney, Australia Both eyes
ca
Robaei (2006) [31] 2353 12 years ≥ + 2.00 D 75.3 5 Not available Not available
Both eyes
ca
SMS, Sydney, Australia
Grönlund (2006) [32] 143 4-15 years ≥ + 2.00 D Not stated 9.1md Not available Not available
At last one eye was hyperopic
Gothenburg, Sweden ca
Laatikainen (1980) [33] Uusimaa County, Finland 822 7-15 years ≥ + 2.00 D Not stated 9.7 Not available 7 – 8 years: 19.1% (13.0 – 25.1)
Right eye
cr 9 – 10 years: 6.9% (3.5 – 10.3)
11 – 12 years: 11.7% (7.5 – 15.9)
14 – 15 years: 3.6% (1.1 – 6.1)
O’Donoghue (2012) [34] Northern Ireland (NICER) 1053 6-7 years ≥ +2.00D 62.0 in children 6–7 years 65.0 in children 12–13 years 26 20 – 33 6-7 years: 26% (20–33)
14,7 9.9 – 19.4 12-13 years: 14.7% (9.9 – 19.4)
12-13 years RESC
ca
Logan (2011) [35] Birmingham, England (AES) 596 6-7 years ≥ + 2.00 D Not stated 12.3 8.8–15.7 Not available
5.4 2.8 – 8.0
12-13 years Either/both eyes
ca
Naidoo (2003) [36] 4890 5-15 years ≥ + 2.00 D 87.3 2.6 Not available 5 years: 2.7% (0.6 – 4.8)
RESC
ca
Durban area, South Africa 6 years: 2.4% (0.7 – 4.1)
7 years: 2.8% (0.9 – 4.7)
8 years: 1.3% (0.1 – 2.6)
9 years 2.9% (0.1 – 5.7)
10 years: 3.4% (1.8 – 4.9)
11 years: 3.5% (1.9 – 5.1)
12 years: 3.2% (1.2 – 5.1)
13 years: 2.9% (0.3 – 5.5)
14 years: 1.9% (0.6 – 3.2)
15 years: 0.7% (0.0 – 1.8)
Maul (2000) [37] 5303 5-15 years ≥ + 2.00 D 75.8 19.3 Not available Males:
RESC 5 years: 22.7% (18.0 – 27.4)
ca 15 years: 7.1% (3.5 – 10.6)
Females:
5years: 26.3% (22.0 – 30.6)
15 years: 8.9% (3.7 – 14.1)
La Florida, Chile
Czepita (2008) [38] Urban: 1200 10-14 years ≥ + 1.50 D Not stated Urban: 7.1 5.6 – 8.5 Urban (N = 1200):
Right eye Rural: 30.8 27.9 – 33.7 10 years: 8.3% (5.2 – 11.3)
cr 11 years: 4.1% (1.6 – 6.6)
12 years: 9.9% (5.8 – 14.0)
13 years: 7.7% (4.3 – 11.1)
14 years:5.3% (2.2 – 8.3)
Rural (n = 1006)
10 years: 33.3% (27.1 – 39.5)
Czeczecin, Poland Rural:1006 11 years: 28.4% (22.1 – 34.7)
12 years: 26.9% (20.9 – 32.9)
13 years: 30.5% (24.4 – 36.5)
14 years:36.4% (28.7 – 44.1)
Kleinstein (2003) [39] CLEERE Study, USA 2523 5-17 years ≥ + 1.25 D in each meridian Not stated 12.8 11.5 – 14.1 Not available
Right eye
ca
Zadnik (2003) [40] 2583 7-12 years ≥ + 1.25 D§ Not stated 8.6 Not available Not available
Right eye
ca
CLEERE Study, USA
Dandona (1999) [41] 599 0-15 years ≥ + 1.00 D Not stated 41.14 24.9 – 58.0 Not available
Eye with higher refractive error
Andhra Pradesh, India
cr
Shrestha (2011) [42] 2236 5-16 years ≥ + 1.00 D Not stated 20,3 Not available Not available
Either/both eyes
cr
Jhapa, Nepal
Czepita (2007) [43] 4422 6-18 years ≥ + 1.00 D Not stated 13.05 Not available 6 years: 36.5% (31.8 – 41.3)
7 years: 19.2% (15.4 – 22.9)
8 years: 17.4% (13.8 – 21.0)
9 years 11.3% (8.3 – 14.3)
10 years: 11.0% (8.0 – 14.0)
11 years: 10.9% (8.0 – 14.0)
12 years: 8.3% (5.6 – 10.9)
13 years: 11.8% (8.1 – 15.5)
14 years: 8.2% (5.3 – 11.2)
15 years: 8.6% (5.4 – 11.8)
16 years: 2.8% (0.6 – 5.1)
17 years: 2.5% (0.3 – 4.7)
18 years: 3.2% (0.7 – 5.7)
Right eye
cr
Szczecin, Poland
Vilareal (2003) [44] 1035 12-13 years ≥ + 1.00 D Not stated 6 Not available Not available
ca
Monterrey, Mexico
Vilareal (2000) [45] 1045 12-13 years ≥ + 1.00 D Not stated 8.4% Not available Not available
Right eye
cr
Götemborg area Sweden
Hashemi (2004) [46] 412 5-15 years ≥ + 0,50 D Not stated 78.6 74.6 – 82.6 Not available
Right eye
ca
Tehran, Iran
Dandona (2002) [47] 2603 0-15 years ≥ + 0,50 D Not stated 62.6 57.0 – 68.1 Not available
Eye with higher refractive error
Andhra Pradesh, India
cr
Niroula (2009) [48] 964 10-19 years ≥ + 0,50 D Not stated 1.24 Not available Not available
Both eyes
cr
Pokhara, Nepal        
  1. y = years (age); CI: Confidence Interval; SE: mean spherical equivalent; RESC: The Refractive Error Study in Children; ca: cycloplegic autorefraction; cr: cycloplegic retinoscopy.
  2. † study did not mention SE in its definition of hyperopia.
  3. ‡ It was considered +0,5 diopter or more spherical power.
  4. § Define as +1.25 D or more in both meridians.