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Table 3 Factors associated with risk of developing cataracts - univariate analysis (N = 11,591)

From: Cataract subtype risk factors identified from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination survey 2008–2010

  Univariate OR 95% CI p
1. Socio-demographic factors    
Age (years)    
  40–49 1.0 (ref)   
  50–59 4.3 3.8–5.0 <0.01
  60–69 21.0 18.3–24.1 <0.01
  70–80 92.6 76.4–112.4 <0.01
  80+ 344.5 187.4–633.1 <0.01
Sex    
  Men 1.0 (ref)   
  Women 1.0 1.0–1.1 0.35
Monthly household income    
  Lowest quintile 1.0 (ref)   
  2nd to 4th quintile 0.2 0.2–0.3 <0.01
  Highest quintile 0.1 0.1–0.1 <0.01
Education    
  Elementary school 1.0 (ref)   
  Middle school 0.3 0.3–0.4 <0.01
  High school 0.2 0.2–0.2 <0.01
  University or higher 0.1 0.1–0.1 <0.01
Residential area    
  Urban 1.0 (ref)   
  Rural 1.8 1.6–1.9 <0.01
Occupation    
Administrator, management, and professional 1.0 (ref)   
Business and financial operations 0.9 0.7–1.2 0.49
Sales and related 1.6 1.3–1.9 <0.01
Farming, fishing, and forestry 6.8 5.6–8.3 <0.01
Installation, maintenance, and repair 1.6 1.3–2.0 <0.01
Laborer 3.6 2.9–4.4 <0.01
Unemployed 6.5 5.5–7.8 <0.01
2. Health examination variable    
Obesity    
  Underweight 1.0 (ref)   
  Normal 1.0 0.9–1.1 0.80
  Obesity 2.1 1.7–2.7 <0.01
Hypercholesterolemia    
  No 1.0 (ref)   
  Yes 1.5 1.3–1.6 <0.01
Hypo-HDL-cholesterolemia    
  No 1.0 (ref)   
  Yes 1.4 1.2–1.5 <0.01
Hypertriglycemia    
  No 1.0 (ref)   
  Yes 1.1 1.0–1.2 0.13
Anemia    
  No 1.0 (ref)   
  Yes 1.3 1.2–1.5 <0.01
Metabolic syndrome    
  No 1.0 (ref)   
  Yes 2.1 1.9–2.2 <0.01
3. Comorbidities    
Hypertension    
  No 1.0 (ref)   
  Yes 3.1 2.8–3.3 <0.01
Diabetic mellitus    
  No 1.0 (ref)   
  Yes 3.1 2.7–3.5 <0.01
Osteoarthritis    
  No 1.0 (ref)   
  Yes 2.8 2.5–3.1 <0.01
Rheumatoid arthritis    
  No 1.0 (ref)   
  Yes 2.1 1.7–2.6 <0.01
Atopic dermatitis    
  No 1.0 (ref)   
  Yes 0.7 0.5–1.0 0.06
Asthma    
  No 1.0 (ref)   
  Yes 1.9 1.6–2.3 <0.01
4. Health behavioral risk factors    
Lifetime smoker    
  No 1.0 (ref)   
  Yes 1.0 0.9–1.1 0.82
Binge alcohol user    
  No 1.0 (ref)   
  Yes 0.5 0.4–0.5 <0.01
Physical activity of moderate intensity    
  Never 1.0 (ref)   
  >5 times per week 1.1 0.9–1.3 0.51
Coffee consumption    
  Never 1.0 (ref)   
  1–6 cups per week 0.7 0.6–0.8 <0.01
  ≥7 cups per week 0.5 0.4–0.5 <0.01
Stress    
  Least stress 1.0 (ref)   
  Moderately stressful 0.4 0.4–0.5 <0.01
  Extreme stress 0.6 0.5–0.7 <0.01
Sun exposure    
  <5 hr/day 1.0 (ref)   
  ≥5 hr/day 1.7 1.6–1.9 <0.01