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Table 1 Comparative analysis between the control and Dry Eye Disease (DED) Groups

From: Smartphone use is a risk factor for pediatric dry eye disease according to region and age: a case control study

  Control DED P
Subjects (N, (%)) 856 (93.4 %) 60 (6.6 %)  
Region of Urban (%) 67.5 86.7 0.03a
Age (years) 9.49 ± 1.00 9.90 ± 0.93 0.03b
Sex of Female (%) 46.5 53.3 0.47a
Visual Acuity (LogMAR) 0.33 ± 0.46 0.61 ± 0.37 <0.001b
SE (diopter) −2.05 ± 2.15 −2.55 ± 1.84 0.22b
Use of Glass (%) 38.1 63.3 0.01a
Related with DED Risk Factors
 Use of Smartphones (%) 55.4 96.7 <0.001a
 Smartphone use/day (hours) 0.62 ± 0.68 3.18 ± 0.97 <0.001b
 Computer use/day (hours) 0.76 ± 0.34 1.10 ± 0.53 <0.001b
 TV use/day (hours) 1.07 ± 0.54 1.18 ± 0.40 0.27b
 Learning/day (hours) 2.31 ± 1.02 3.10 ± 0.50 <0.001b
Related with DED Protective Factors
 Sleep/day (hours) 7.88 ± 0.86 7.70 ± 0.61 0.14b
 Outdoor activity/day (hours) 2.27 ± 1.12 1.47 ± 0.32 <0.001b
  1. DED dry eye disease, SE spherical equivalent, logMAR logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution, TV television
  2. aBy Pearson’s Chi-square test, bBy independent t test