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Table 4 The factors associated with low vision and blindness among patients attending St. Paul’s Hospital Millennium Medical College, 2017 (n = 881)

From: Prevalence and associated factors of low vision and blindness among patients attending St. Paul’s Hospital Millennium Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Variables Normal Low vision Blindness X2 p-value
Age     91.76 0.000
 1–26 221(93.8%) 8(3.6%) 6(2.7%)   
 27–48 210(92.5%) 10(4.4%) 7(3.1%)   
 49–62 173(78.3%) 31(14.0%) 17(7.7%)   
 63–100 132(63.5%) 42(20.2%) 34(16.3%)   
Sex     3.99 0.14
 Male 348(80.6%) 45(10.4%) 39(9.0%)   
 Female 378(84.2%) 46(10.2%) 25(5.6%)   
Address     1.38 0.50
 Urban 566(82.7%) 72(10.5%) 46(6.7%)   
 Rural 160(81.2%) 19(9.6%) 18(9.1%)   
Cataract     12.21 0.002
 No 591(84.4%) 60(8.6%) 49(7.0%)   
 Yes 135(74.6%) 31(17.1%) 15(8.3%)   
Glaucoma     12.27 0.002
 No 609(84.2%) 71(9.8%) 43(5.9%)   
 Yes 117(74.1%) 20(12.7%) 21(13.3%)   
Refractive error     4.66 0.1
 No 625(81.9%) 77(10.1%) 61(8.0%)   
 Yes 101(85.6%) 14(11.9%) 3(2.5%)   
Pseudophakia     8.40 0.02
 No 641(83.2%) 71(9.2%) 58(7.5%)   
 Yes 85(76.6%) 20(18.0%) 6(5.4%)   
Trauma     7.91 0.02
 No 663(82.0%) 90(11.1%) 56(6.9%)   
 Yes 63(87.5%) 1(1.4%) 8(11.1%)   
ARMD     84.02 0.000
 No 720(84.5%) 80(9.4%) 52(6.1%)   
 Yes 6(20.7%) 11(37.9%) 12(41.4%)   
Strabismus     1.28 0.53
 No 713(82.3%) 89(10.3%) 64(7.4%)   
 Yes 13(86.7%) 2(18.3%) 0   
DR     2.45 0.29
 No 719(82.5%) 90(10.3%) 62(7.1%)   
 Yes 7(70.0%) 1(10.0%) 2(20.0%)   
HR     1.29 0.53
 No 720(82.3%) 91(10.4%) 64(7.3%)   
 Yes 6(100%) 0 0   
Uveitis     0.97 0.38
 No 718(82.5%) 90(10.3%) 62(7.1%)   
 Yes 8(72.7%) 1(9.1%) 2(18.2%)   
TCO     1.15 0.56
 No 722(82.5%) 90(10.3%) 63(7.2%)   
 Yes 4(66.7%) 1(16.7%) 1(16.7%)   
NTCO     0.24 0.89
 No 715(82.5%) 89(10.3%) 63(7.3%)   
 Yes 11(78.6%) 2(14.3%) 1(7.1%)   
Others     88.05 0.000
 No 414(73.4%) 90(16.0%) 60.3(10.6%)   
 Yes 312(98.0%) 1(0.3%) 4(1.3%)   
  1. ARMD age related macular degeneration, DR diabetic retinopathy, HR hypertensive retinopathy, TCO trachomatous corneal opacity, NTCO non-trachomatous corneal opacity