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Table 1 Characteristics of the included studies

From: Simulation training in vitreoretinal surgery: a systematic review

Study characteristics Studies (Number) Participants (Number)
All studies 7 191
Study designa  
 Single group  
  Posttest only 1 13
  Pre-posttest 1 45
 Nonrandomized, multiple groups 4 119
 Randomized controlled trials 1 14
Participants  
 Medical students 2 26
 Medical students / Ophthalmic residentsb 1 14
 Ophthalmic residents 6 101
 Ophthalmic fellows 2 15
 Vitreoretinal surgeons 5 35
Skills trainedc  
 Vitrectomy 1 13
 Membrane peel 4 109
 Intraocular navigation 5 133
 Instrument handling 3 63
Year of publication  
 2003–2008 3 103
 2009–2013 2 38
 2014–2018 2 50
  1. a, as categorized in context with desired outcomes; b, one study reported its participants as medical students or residents without further specification; c, some studies trained multiple skills