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Table 2 Environmental conditions of the study households in rural Wadla district, northern Ethiopia, 2017

From: Prevalence and associations of active trachoma among rural preschool children in Wadla district, northern Ethiopia

Variables Frequency (n = 499) Percent (%)
Presence of fly in or around a house (observation)
 Present 242 48.5
 Absent 257 51.5
Source of water (self-report)
 River 30 6.0
 Unprotected well 12 2.4
 Protected well 56 11.2
 Pipe 401 80.4
Amount of water in a litter (self -report)
 Less than 20 180 36.1
 20–40 162 32.5
 40–60 92 18.4
 60–80 49 9.8
Greater than 80 16 3.2
 Total time taken to reach to water source (self-report)
 Less than and equal to 1/2 h. 459 92
 Greater than 1/2 h. 40 8
Place of cooking (observation)
 In the same room of living house 157 31.7
 In the same house but in a kitchen 166 33.3
 A kitchen constructed against outside wall of the house 3 .6
 Isolated kitchen 173 34.7
Presence of window in a kitchen (observation)
 Yes 248 49.7
 No 251 50.3
Household waste removal (self-report)
 Burn it 312 62.5
 Bury it 90 18
 Dispose in the farm 93 18.8
 Dispose in another place 4 .8
Presence of latrine (observation)
 Present 371 74.3
 Absent 128 25.7
Presence of feces at open field in nearby a house (observation)
 Present 243 48.7
 Absent 256 51.3
Presence of cattle in a household (observation)
 Present 439 87.9
 Absent 60 12.1
Cattle sheltering (n = 439) (observation)
 In the same room where family lives 128 29.1
 In the same living house but in a separate room 203 46.2
 Attached shelter against outside of the house 6 1.6
 Isolated shelter far from the house 102 23.1
  1. Among children examined for signs of active trachoma, 301 (51%) were males, and 295 (49%) were females. The median age of children was 36 months (Table 3).